in the 1770’s, how was France divided?
into 3 estates
Who was in the 1st estate?
clergy of Catholic church
What are characteristics of the 1st estate?
1. exempt from paying taxes
2. owned 10% of the land in France
3. gave 2% of its income to the government
4. opposed enlightenment ideas
Who was in the 2nd estate?
rich nobles
What are characteristics of the 2nd estate?
1. owned 20% of the land in France
2. paid no taxes
3. opposed enlightenment ideas
Who was in the 3rd estate?
97% of the people in France
What are the characteristics of the 3rd estate?
1. paid high taxes
2. included middle class and lower class citizens
3. supported enlightenment ideas of liberty
What 4 factors contributed to the French Revolution?
1. Success of the American Revolution encouraged Enlightenment ideas to challenge government
2. High taxes and rising costs of living
3. Louis XVI ignored the problems
4. Louis XVI did not listen to his advisors
In 1789, what did the delegates of the third estate insist on?
each delegate be given one vote
Did the nobles and monarchy support the idea of each delegate being given one vote?
No, each estate gets one vote
What did the delegates of the Third Estate do in 1789?
established the National Assembly starting representative government
How did the monarchy respond to the creation of the National Assembly?
locked out of the meeting room
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
Delegates broke down the door to an indoor tennis court, pledging to stay until a new constitution is made
What did the delegates do on July 14, 1789?
Stormed the Bastille prison in search of guns and gunpowder
What was the Great Fear?
rumors that nobles were hiring outlaws to kill peasants led the peasants to become outlaws
What did the peasants do as outlaws?
Burned down the nobles’ houses and women rioted over the cost of bread
What did noblemen do on August 4, 1789?
gave speeches declaring their desire for liberty and equality
What did the National Assembly do for commoners?
made them equal to nobles and clergy
What did the National Assembly write?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
What was the expression adopted by French leaders?
Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity for all men
Were equal rights provided for women in France?
No
What were 2 things decided by National Assembly?
1. took over church lands
2. priests would be elected and paid as state officials
How did the peasants respond to the National Assembly making the church part of the state?
offended peasants causing them to oppose the assembly’s reform efforts
What did Louis XVI’s family attempt to do?
attempted to escape France, but were apprehended
What did the National Assembly’s new constitution state in 1791?
1. Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws
2. Legislative Assembly had the power to declare war
3. Stripped the king of his power
4 King could enforce laws
Who declared war on France in 1792?
Austria and Prussia
Why did Austria and Prussia declare war on France?
challenge France’s efforts to spread democracy across Europe and their effort to eliminate Absolute Monarchy
What did Prussian forces threaten if any of the revolutionaries harmed France’s loyal family?
threatened to destroy Paris
What happened on August 10?
20,000 people invaded the palace and imprisoned Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and their children
What did angry citizens do in France?
raided the prisons and murdered 1,000 prisoners
Under pressure from radicals, what did the Legislative Assembly do in 1791?
1. eliminated the king
2. dissolved the assembly
3. called for the election of a new legislature
What was decided at the National Convention?
1. abolished the monarchy
2. declared France a republic
3. adult males declared the right to vote
4. adult males could hold office
Which group was responsible for most of the radical changes in France?
Jacobin Club
What did Jacobin, Jean-Paul Marat write about?
editorials calling for the death of all of those people who supported the king
Who did Jacobin, Georges Danton speak for?
rights of Paris’s poor
What did Jacobins do about Louis XVI?
found him guilty of treason and sentenced him to death by the guillotine
Which 3 countries joined Austria and Prussia against France in 1793?
1. Great Britain
2. Holland
3. Spain
To adjust to the growing numbers that opposed France, what did France do in 1794?
ordered a draft of 300,000 French citizens bringing the French army to 800,000 soldiers
Who were the enemies of the Jacobins?
1. peasants horrified by the King’s execution
2. priests who would not accept governmental control
3. rival leaders rebelling in their own provinces
Who set out to build a republic of virtue in France?
Maximillien Robespierre
What were some changes that Maximillien Robespierre made?
1. changed the calendar, dividing the 12 months into 30 days
2. renamed each month
3. eliminated Sundays
4. closed all churches in France
How did Robespierre rule France?
Dictatorship
What was Robespierre time in France called?
Reign of Terror
What did Robespierre do to enemies of the Revolution?
used the guillotine to remain true to the ideals of the Revolution
What did members of the National Convention do to Robespierre in 1794?
arrested and executed Robespierre as they feared for their safety end his Reign of Terror
What did moderate leaders of the National Convention do in 1795?
drafted a new plan of government called the Directory
Who had the power under the Directory?
middle class
What did the Directory create in government?
two-house legislature and an executive body
How did the executive body bring order to the country?
placed France’s armies in the control of Napoleon Bonaparte
What did Napoleon Bonaparte do to royalist rebels in 1795?
greeted the rebels with a cannonade causing the rebels to flee in panic
What did Napoleon do in 1796?
swept into Italy and won a series of battles
Why did Napoleon lead an expedition to Egypt?
protect French trade and disrupt British trade in India
Why was Napoleon able to remain a hero even after defeats?
Napoleon kept the defeats out of the paper
What did France replace the Directory with in 1799?
established a group of 3 consuls, one of whom was Napoleon
Once a consul, what did Napoleon become?
Dictator of France
Which 3 countries did Napoleon wage war with in 1799?
1. Great Britain
2. Austria
3. Russia
What did France do in 1800 desperate for new leadership?
people voted for a new constitution giving Napoleon all real power
What did Napoleon do to provide financial management and improve the economy?
1. set up a method of tax collection
2. established a national banking system
Why did Napoleon set up government-run public schools?
train men how to be effective government officials
What did the agreement say that Napoleon signed with Pope Pius VII?
government recognized the influence of the church, but rejected Church control in national affairs
How did the agreement Napoleon made with Pope Pius VII affect his political status?
gained him support of the Church and the majority of the French people
What were the 3 parts of the Napoleonic Code?
1. Limited liberty and individual rights
2. Promoted order and authority
3. Restored slavery in the French colonies
What occurred in 1804?
Napoleon became emperor of France
Why did Napoleon attempt to conquer Saint Dominique in 1789?
restore the sugar industry
failed and his soldiers were affected by disease and the rebel fighters were fierce
What did Napoleon do in 1803 as a result of losing these battles?
sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States
How did Napoleon’s victories against Great Britain, Austria, and Russia affect France?
became the largest European empire since the Roman empire
What defeat occurred in 1805 for Napoleon?
naval defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar
By 1812, Napoleon controlled all of Europe except which countries?
1. Great Britain
2. Portugal
3. Sweden
4. Spain
5. Ottoman Empire
Which countries were able to be controlled by Napoleon because they were afraid of being invaded?
1. Russia
2. Prussia
3. Austria
What led to Napoleon’s collapse?
Napoleon’s desire to extend the French empire and crush Great Britain
In 1806, Napoleon created the continental system. What was the continental system?
policy set up a blockade preventing all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations
What did Great Britain do as a response to the continental system?
Great Britain was able to get their products through as the blockade was to loose
Great Britain set up its own blockade
How did the United States respond to the blockade by Great Britain?
United States fought the War of 1812 against Great Britain
What did Napoleon fight in 1808?
guerrilla war with Spain as Napoleon attempted to conquer Portugal
How did Napoleon’s choice to attack in 1808 affect France?
suffered 300,000 soldiers going through Spain weakening the French empire
Who did Napoleon invade in 1812?
Russia at the Battle of Borodino
Did Napoleon win the Battle of Borodino?
Yes
What happened when Napoleon invaded Moscow in December?
Much of Napoleon’s army died from cold and starvation
After suffering losses at Moscow, what did other countries do to Napoleon?
Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria, and Sweden all declared war on Napoleon
Why did Napoleon’s attempts to raise more troops fail?
the soldiers were untrained and not prepared for battle
What did the allies do to Napoleon in 1814?
pushed into Paris forcing Napoleon’s surrender
Who assumed the throne after Napoleon?
Louis XVI’s brother
Why were the peasants uncomfortable with the leadership of Louis XVI’s brother?
fearful he would try to undo the reforms done by the French Revolution
What happened in 1815?
Napoleon named emperor of France again
What did Napoleon do in 1815?
attacked Great Britain in Belgium
Did Napoleon defeat Great Britain?
No, Prussia defended Great Britain
What was Napoleon’s final defeat called?
Hundred Days War