WHS AP US History Ch 17

In the late nineteenth century, industry in the United States
A. obtained the bulk of its raw materials from Central and South America.
B. faced a growing shortage of laborers.
C. saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
D. lacked adequate capital to expand the domestic market.
E. suffered from an entrepreneurial deficit.
C. saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the United States
A. boomed as a result of the expanding United States Navy.
B. emerged as an important supplier for railroad construction.
C. largely replaced the iron industry.
D. resulted in the construction of large commercial ocean freighters.
E. barely developed at all.
E. barely developed at all.
The open-hearth process of making steel
A. was replaced by the Bessemer process.
B. was first done in the United States.
C. produced small quantities of high-grade steel.
D. made the production of large dimension pieces possible.
E. was ridiculed by established steelmakers such as Abram Hewitt.
D. made the production of large dimension pieces possible
All of the following cities became important centers for steel production EXCEPT
A. Pittsburgh.
B. Chicago.
C. Atlanta.
D. Birmingham.
E. Detroit.
C. Atlanta.
The first significant oil production in the United States occurred in
A. Ohio.
B. Texas.
C. California.
D. Michigan.
E. Pennsylvania.
E. Pennsylvania.
In 1917, automobile production in the United States
A. was the nation’s largest industry.
B. saw Charles and Frank Duryea build the first practical gasoline-powered car.
C. saw five million cars on American roads.
D. was almost nonexistent.
E. finally became feasible thanks to the innovations of Henry Ford.
C. saw five million cars on American roads.
In 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in American corporations
A. occurred as federal funding for research greatly expanded.
B. led to a diversification of research interests.
C. developed similar research goals as in Europe.
D. was deemed unnecessary since so many American university laboratories existed.
E. centralized the sources of research funding.
B. led to a diversification of research interests.
key to Henry Ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was
A. the use of welds instead of rivets to speed production.
B. a reduction in the size of his labor force.
C. the use of interchangeable parts.
D. the training of highly skilled workers.
E. his encouragement of labor unions in organizing his factories.
C. the use of interchangeable parts.
Which of the following statements about the American railroad industry in the late nineteenth century is FALSE?
A. It included the nation’s largest businesses.
B. It saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations.
C. It relied partially on government subsidies for its growth.
D. It was among the first to adopt new corporate form of organization.
E. It became a national symbol of concentrated economic power.
B. It saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations.
Who among the following was NOT significantly associated with the steel industry?
A. Henry Bessemer
B. Andrew Carnegie
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
D. Henry Clay Frick
E. James J. Hill
E. James J. Hill
The business structure of Standard Oil was a good example of
A. vertical integration.
B. horizontal integration.
C. diagonal integration.
D. central integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration.
In the American business community at the end of the nineteenth century,
A. one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
B. almost all corporations had achieved stability through “pool” arrangements.
C. federal reforms of corporations had ended the most predatory business practices.
D. most states had made it illegal for one corporation to buy another one.
E. rampant competitiveness and labor shortages helped to keep prices down and wages up.
A. one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
The social theory of Social Darwinism
A. argued the new industrial economy was limiting the potential for individual wealth.
B. contended that ruthless corruption may be necessary in the attainment of wealth.
C. was created by Charles Darwin to explain industrial economies.
D. promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
E. argued that it behooved industrial titans to spread their wealth to the lower classes.
D. promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
In the late nineteenth century, the first and most important promoter of Social Darwinism was
A. Henry George.
B. Horatio Alger.
C. Russell Conwell.
D. Jacob Riis.
E. Herbert Spencer.
E. Herbert Spencer.
In his books, Horatio Alger
A. offered true accounts of poor Americans who had become wealthy.
B. took critical issue with the ideas of Social Darwinism.
C. emphasized the value of personal character in business.
D. criticized child labor in American industry.
E. argued that wealth and privilege were ultimately hollow achievements.
C. emphasized the value of personal character in business.
In the late nineteenth century, Daniel De Leon
A. created the ideas of laissez-faire.
B. founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
C. argued that large corporations were ultimately of benefit to American workers.
D. led the American Federation of Labor.
E. became a strong advocate of Taylorism.
B. founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
Edward Bellamy’s 1888 book, Looking Backward,
A. described an America engaged in a second civil war due to concentrated wealth.
B. promoted the virtues of economic competition.
C. depicted a world presided over by an industrialist-king modeled on J. P. Morgan.
D. accepted the necessity of class divisions in a capitalist economy.
E. imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
E. imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
During the 1870s and 1880s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
A. Italy and the Slavic countries.
B. Great Britain and northern Europe.
C. Poland, Hungary and Russia.
D. Japan and China.
E. Mexico.
B. Great Britain and northern Europe.
By 1900, the average yearly income of American workers
A. was about $600.
B. allowed most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of living.
C. remained generally unaffected by economic boom-and-bust cycles.
D. both allowed most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of living and remained generally
unaffected by economic boom-and-bust cycles.
E. None of these answers is correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.
During the late nineteenth century, child labor in the United States
A. increased significantly.
B. was unregulated by laws in most states.
C. saw more children working in factories than in agriculture.
D. both increased significantly and saw more children working in factories than in agriculture.
E. None of these answers is correct.
A. increased significantly.
The great railroad strike of 1877
A. began in the West and spread east.
B. saw the federal government refuse to intervene.
C. was launched in response to a wage cut.
D. saw organized labor gain its first major victory in the United States.
E. resulted in only two deaths around the country.
C. was launched in response to a wage cut.
At its height in 1886, the Knights of Labor were led by
A. Uriah S. Stephens.
B. Eugene Debs.
C. Henry Clay Frick.
D. Terence V. Powderly.
E. John Peter Altgeld.
D. Terence V. Powderly.
The Haymarket Square Riot of 1886
A. saw public outrage over the police firing into a crowd of workers.
B. resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists.
C. took place in Indianapolis.
D. resulted in a strike at the McCormick Harvester Company.
E. proved the catalyst for several wide-ranging labor reforms.
B. resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists
In what industry did the Homestead strike of 1892 occur?
A. steel
B. railroad
C. meatpacking
D. coal
E. oil
A. steel
The Pullman strike of 1894 began when George Pullman, owner of the company,
A. ordered rail workers to move into company-owned housing.
B. referred to workers as his “children.”
C. cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
D. refused to implement an eight-hour work day.
E. began hiring African-American workers in his factories.
C. cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
Eugene Debs played a leading role in what labor event?
A. the Homestead strike
B. the Pullman strike
C. the Haymarket Square riot
D. the Railroad strike of 1877
E. All these answers are correct.
B. the Pullman strike

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