US History Exam II

George Washington
Revolutionary leader and first President of the United States after the war. Farewell address consisted of warnings against factions(parties) and entangling alliances with other countries.
English Civil War writers
Writings showed colonists about the division between kings, houses, and families. Each trying to convince others to join their side and that the other was evil. Colonies read these to find how horrifying the British were in the civil war that divided the country. Believed that the British were trying to change them when it was the British who needed to change.
Boston Tea Party
Response to Tea Act; Led by Sons of Liberty, colonists dressed up as Indians and went to harbor to offload tea from ships into Boston Harbor.
Shay’s Rebellion
Led by Daniel Shay, protests by farmers because of economic depression from debt and taxes. Gathered 1200 people to stop foreclosure sales. Showed how weak the Articles of Confederation were.
Washington’s farewell address
George Washington’s statement saying how the nation needs to stay away from entangling alliances with European(and all) countries. Also warned against factions, or parties, from creating a divided nation.
Coercive Acts
Boston Port: Close port until tea dumping is paid. Tried to stop destruction of property.

Massachusetts Government: Mass. Charter changed to strengthen England’s governor appointed. Weakened the local assembly. Tried to stop terrorist activities.

Admin of Justice: Reserved right for a “fair trial”, including British soldiers in colonies. Troops sent back to England to have the fairest trial possible.

Quartering: British troops allowed to be in colonial homes. With the colonists paying to feed and house the troops.

Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion from the tax on Whiskey in order to get income for country. Open defiance of law and order. George Washington leads 12,000 troops to stop it. When Washington arrives the rebellion dissolves. Government looks strong since it was able to stop it.
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to the Constitution stating the natural rights of citizens. Helped get support for the Constitution to be ratified.
Pinckney Treaty
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which resolved territorial disputes and allowed for free usage of the Mississippi river and New Orleans.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbid the colonists to expand beyond the Appalachian Mountain chain after the French and Indian War and gains of land to Mississippi. Angered colonists and colonies with charters beyond the Appalachian.
Gaspee Incident
Caused an outrage in England. British ship rushed ashore and stuck due to lowering of sea level in tides. Colonists go out at night and set fire to ship. Next morning “no one saw anything happen”.
Common Sense
Thomas Paine: pamphlet that passionately argued for independence. Spread throughout the colonies and vividly showed why the colonists should support the revolution.
Articles of Confederation
Ratified after revolution. States remained independent but together. Congress given authority to make treaties and alliances, but could not tax or control currency. Power rested in local representative assembly. Created the realization of the need for some central government.
Constitutional Convention
Secret convention between the colonies that had representatives come without knowledge of what it was about. Realization of need for better central government.
Representation: Bigger states wanted representation based on population; Little states wanted equal representation with bigger states. Created Virginia Compromise: where a bicameral legislature would be created; A House of Representation(population) and a Senate(2 votes each).
Powers for Congress stated along with implied powers in order to get the stated powers acted.
In order to pass Constitution, Capital moves south from Philadelphia to D.C.
Declaration of Independence
Statement of colonial grievances against Britain and reasons why they were at war, stating that they were independent and free of English control.
Northwest Ordinance 1787
Established a government for the new Northwest territory. Created a process for admissions of new territories and new states. Population of 5,000 people to become a territory, 60,000 to become a state. New territories and states must be free(slavery) and have a representative assembly.
Funding and Assumption
Both Funding and Assumption are sections of Alexander Hamilton’s ‘Report on Public Credit’.
Funding: Need to create a stable currency that should be backed by gold across the U.S.
Assumption: The Federal Government takes control of all states debt($50 million total), and that the Federal Gov. will make interest payments to create credit.
Federalist Papers
Collection of writings that meant to gain support for ratification of the Constitution. 50 were written by Alexander Hamilton, 30 by James Madison, and 5 by John Jay.
Adam Smith
Wealth of Nations: Believed that mercantilism has never worked and has been maintained for no gain and only loss. If we are left free to our own interests, we will become what we want and not what we have to be.
Sons of Liberty
Created by Samuel Adams; group of early patriots who revolted against taxes from Parliament. Would tar and feather government officials. Argued that colonists were not represented fairly.
Stamp Act
Act by Parliament that posed a stamp on basically every paper(newspaper, pamphlet, etc) which gave revenue straight to England. Colonies would come together to boycott British made goods. Led to Stamp Act Congress; an illegal congress with representatives from most colonies, whom created grievances towards England and decided to boycott British goods.
Saratoga
Turning point of the revolutionary war. Led by Gates and hero Benedict Arnold. The American win showed that there was promise to the Revolution. This victory led to the French joining the American cause.
John Locke
‘Essay Concerning Human Understanding’ is how we are a blank slate and must gain everything through experience.
Two Treatises of Government: First- No government can be justified by the divine right of kings.
Second- Human beings are in a state of nature and are free, independent, people with natural rights. Our environment will dictate most of what we will become and how we act.
Jay Treaty
Treaty between U.S. and Britain that sought to settle trade and territory problems. Unpopular among American people. Thomas Jefferson supported the French, and Alexander Hamilton the British for allies. Gained the surrender of outposts still occupied by British troops. Was a treaty that stated U.S. neutrality.
Report on Public Credit
Three parts:
Funding- The U.S. needs a stable currency, backed by gold, across the entire country instead of states having their own currency.
Assumption- All states owed money($50 million total), decided tat the Federal Government should take control of all debt of states. Federal Government will then will make interest payments.
U.S. Bank- Need for an established bank that can manage currency and debt. Thomas Jefferson found Bank unconstitutional.
Essay I: Why did the colonists interpret the reforms of mercantilism as a conspiracy against their liberty? Elaborate on the sources of colonial thought
Essay II: How did England attempt to reform mercantilism after 1760
Essay III: Elaborate on the presidency and significance of George Washington. Discuss his cabinet, foreign and domestic policies and his farewell address.
Writs of Assistance
Court orders that allowed the British to search for smuggled goods in the colonies.
Vice Admiralty Courts
Juryless courts that judge for sentence. Apart of England’s court system. Colonists upset because it was different than the judicial system that they had developed.
Sam Adams
Founder of the Son’s of Liberty. Delegate to Continental Congress.
Land Ordinance 1785
How the new territory gained in the Revolution was devised to be split up. Sold in 36 sq mile territories. 16th section of every territory would be used to provide for free schooling.
Yorktown
Battle that ended the Revolutionary War. Americans lead by Washington, French by Lafayette, and British by Cornwallis. The Americans and French surrounded and trapped the British at Yorktown. French by water, Americans by land. Cornwallis surrendered after realization they would not win.
Hessians
German mercenaries contracted by the British during the Revolutionary war.

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