US History Chapter 5 Test

Republic
Form of government in which officials are elected by the people
Unicameral Legislature
Lawmaking body made up of one house
Bicameral Legislature
Lawmaking body made up of two houses
Articles of Confederation
Original federal constitution drafted by the continental congress in 1777
John Dickinson
A delegate from Pennsylvania. He will try to block independence from being discussed. He is the man who wrote the Olive Branch Petition. He is a patriot and won’t be a loyalist, but he is trying to make peace with England. He will not sign the Declaration of Independence, but will fight on the American side during the Revolution.
Federal
National
Northwest Territory
Vast territory north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania as far as the Mississippi
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law which designed a system for managing and settling lands in the Northwest Territory
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Law which provided a basis for governing the Northwest Territory
Shay’s Rebellion
farmers’ rebellion led by Daniel Shays against higher taxes in Massachusetts
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt; Federalist leader
James Madison
“Father of the Constitution,” Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States; Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
James Madison’s proposal for bicameral legislature with representation
New Jersey Plan
Wiliam Pateron’s proposal for a unicameral legislature with each state having one vote
Great Compromise
compromise between Virginia and New Jersey plans for a bicameral legislature; each state would have equal representation in the Senate and varied representation in the House of Representation based on the state’s population
Federalism
Political system in which power is shared between the national government and state governments
Three-Fifths Compromise
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
Ratification
Approval
Federalist
one who favored ratification of the Constitution
Antifederalist
A person who opposed the adoption of the United States Constitution.
THE FEDERALIST
Series of 85 essays written by Madison, Hamilton, and Jay that explained an defended Constitution
John Jay
1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, negotiated with British for Washington
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Popular Sovereignty
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
Limited Government
A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Electoral College
A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

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