corrupt New York politician who controlled the Customs House
James A. Garfield
reforming president who was assassinated
Chester A. Arthur
reform of the civil service system
first Democratic president since the Civil War; championed commerce reform
weak president; monopoly reform
Terrence V. Powderly
leader of the Knights of Labor
Eugene V. Debs
radical leader of the Socialist party
William Jennings Bryan
“The Great Commoner” and free silver crusader
winner of the first modern presidential campaign (1896)
shipping and railroad baron
John D. Rockefeller
James Buchanan Duke
the South’s tobacco baron
Alexander Graham Bell
invention of the telephone
Thomas Alva Edison
America’s most prolific inventor
title earned because of greed for gain and aggressive business practices
the consolidation of all of one entire segment of an industry
controlled part of every aspect of production from the ground up; Carnegie controlled every aspect of steel productions from the mine to the market
legal device by which a board of trustees was empowered to make decisions and control the operations of a whole group of companies
one that would match the North in economic and industrial capacity; built on the twin pillars of the two T’s – tobacco and textiles
favored high tariffs, hard money, and the spoils system
moderate Republicans who opposed the Stalwarts
George H. Pendleton, a Democrat from Ohio, introduced a bill, the Pendleton Act, that recommended establishing an independent Civil Service Commission and eliminating much of the spoils system
Interstate Commerce Act
Signed by Cleveland in February, 1887. 1) Directed that railroad rates must be “reasonable and just”; 2) Required that railroad companies publish all rates and make financial reports; and 3) provided for the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), an independent regulatory agency, to investigate alleged abuses and stop them.
Arthur’s presidency is noted from attempts to revise the tariff. A commission recommended a reduction of 20 to 25 percent. Congressmen added many amendments and was a mixture of policies.
Sherman Antitrust Act
During the Harrison years, the Sherman Antitrust Act, passed in 1890, was very influential. It made monopolies illegal. “Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce… is hereby declared to be illegal.” The act was difficult to enforce because their were no specific definitions.
1890. New tariff placed higher duties on manufactured and agricultural imports than any previous tariff in history. Inefficiency in American production was protected from foreign competition. Additionally, it actually lowered revenue by radically decreasing trade. The lower revenue coupled with excessive spending by Congress hurt the economy. The public showed it’s anger in the next elections.
Panic of ’93
financial collapse after Cleveland’s inauguration plunged the nation into four years of the worst depression it had seen
Knights of Labor
formed in 1869 as a secret society of skilled and unskilled workers from various occupations
Terrence V. Powderly
former mayor of Scranton, PA who led the Knights of Labor
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
influential labor organization formed in 1881; splinter group from Knights of Labor; formed craft unions for skilled laborers
leader of AFL who supported higher wages, shorter working hours, safer working conditions, and elimination of child labor
Haymarket Riot of 1886
Factory workers in Chicago, agitated by anarchists, went on strike, demanding an 8 hour day; someone threw a bomb that killed seven policemen and four civilians; many others were seriously wounded. This riot discredited the Knights of Labor and ended the “eight hour” movement for the time being.
precipitated by five wage reductions, totaling twenty-five per cent, made necessary by the depression. The company did not lower rent on housing or the cost of goods in the stores. The workers went on strike and Pullman withdrew the worker’s credit in the company stores. Pullman workers appealed to Deb’s American Railway Union. Strikers destroyed engines, cars, and equipment. Cleveland sent in troops. Debs defied the injunction and went to jail for six months.
advocates collective or government ownership of the means of production
During the 1870s protesting farmers organized under the leadership of the Patrons of Husbandry, more commonly called the Grange. As a result of the Grange’s influence, several midwestern states passed Granger Laws, regulating railroads.
issue that dominated the populist party was money; easy money advocates began to view coinage of silver as the answer to their problems; free silver would make it possible for the debtor to pay his debts; businesses to start anew….
movement of the population to the cities
a term referring to the United States in which diverse racial and ethnic cultures would blend to form a new and unified nation
the application of evolutionary theory to social institutions; John Rockefeller seized the concept as an article of faith; He declared, “The growth of a large business is merely the survival of the fittest….”
the desire for worldly possessions and the belief that only they can bring true happiness
the conducting of large, city-wide campaigns in huge auditoriums or large churches
Dwight L. Moody
Although not formally educated, Moody had a gift for communicating. He spoke plainly from the heart and his theme was simple: God loves sinners and wants to save them. Moody was extremely well-organized and conducted his meetings like a businessman.
served as Moody’s song leader and soloist; he popularized the “gospel song”
the most prolific writer of gospel songs in the nineteenth century
produced such American classics as “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Life on the Mississippi”;
In contrast to the emotional, exotic character of romanticism, realists, such as Twain, drew a picture of simple, ordinary life colored with captivating humor
emphasized man’s helplessness and struggle with the world; Stephen Crane, for example, in “Maggie: A Girls of the Streets (1893) portrayed a girl who is overwhelmed by circumstances and driven to prostitution, a tragic victim of the city. In the “Red Badge of Courage” (1895) Crane described a young soldier caught up in the whirling fates of war.