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inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a specific environment
Adaptation
the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that result from high-throughput methods
Bioinformatics
the scientific study of life
Biology
the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems
Biosphere
the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activates required for life. Every cell is enclosed by a membrane that regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings
Cell
person who believed in 1.) descent with modification–captures unity and diversity, and 2.) natural selection–causes evolution as the unequal reproductive successes of individuals adapts the population to its environment
Charles Darwin
passes through a series of consumers, eventually decomposes
Chemical Energy
all the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction
Community
eat plants and other animals
Consumers
an experiment in which an experimental group is compared with a control group that varies only in the factor being tested
Controlled Experiment
recorded observations
Data
small animals, fungi, and bacteria that decompose waste and remains of dead organisms; act as recyclers
Decomposers
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
Deductive Reasoning
it is something that depends on other factors
Dependent Variable
a nucleic acid molecule, usually a double-stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consists of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine; capable of being replicated and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around them
Ecosystems
new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases
Emergent Properties
an ecosystem gains and loses energy constantly
Energy
a type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes
Eukaryotic
the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today
Evolution
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
Gene
the process by which information encoded in DNA directs the synthesis of proteins or, in some cases, RNAs that are not translated into proteins and instead function as RNAs
Gene Expression
the genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism’s or virus’s genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences
Genome
a testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoning. A hypothesis is narrower in scope than a theory
Hypothesis
it is a variable that stands alone and isn’t changed by the other variables you are trying to measure
Independent Variable
induction moves from a set of specific observations (humans require organic molecules, fish require organic molecules) to reach a general conclusion (all animals require organic molecules
Inductive Reasoning
the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism
Metabolism
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Molecule
a form of regulation in which accumulation of an end product of a process slows the process; in physiology, a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change
Negative Feedback
a creature such as a plant, animal or a single-celled life form, or something that has interdependent parts and that is being compared to a living creature
Organism
a group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Organ Systems
any of several membrane-enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
Organelles
a specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues
Organs
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
Population
a form of regulation in which an end product of a process speeds up that process; in physiology, a control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers a response that reinforces or amplifies the change
Positive Feedback
provide food for a particular ecosystem
Producers
a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes
Prokaryotic
reduces complex systems to similar components that are more manageable to study
Reductionism
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system’s parts
Systems Biology
consists of any method or device that applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose that affects society
Technology
an explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses, and is supported by a large body of evidence
Theory
an integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both
Tissues
life first evolves in water. All living organisms require water. Universal solvent
Water
hypothesis
A(n) _____ is a testable explanation for an observation.

a. observation
b. prediction
c. question
d. hypothesis

tests experimental and control groups in parallel
A controlled experiment is one that

a. is supervised by an experienced scientist
b. tests experimental and control groups in parallel
c. keeps all variables constant
d. is repeated many times to make sure the results are accurate
e. proceeds slowly enough that a scientist can make careful records of the results

a community
All the organisms on your campus make up

a. a taxonomic domain
b. a community
c. an experimental group
d. a population
e. an ecosystem

Eukarya
All organisms with eukaryotic cells are grounded to domain _____.
tissues

Organs are composed of two or more different types of tissues.

An organ, such as a liver, is composed of _____.

a. organs
b. populations
c. communities
d. tissues

Bacteria
_____ are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes.
Organisms typically produce too many offspring, and resources are limited.

Resource competition is one of the main ingredients for natural selection. Organisms must compete for limited resources, and only the best adapted will survive and reproduce.

Competition is central to the theory of natural selection. Why does competition occur?

a. Organisms typically produce too many offspring, and resources are limited.
b. Females must choose among possible mates.
c. Males must defend their territories.
d. Organisms are naturally antagonistic.
e. All of the above are correct.

fat… milk

Fat-soluble DDT accumulates in the fats of milk and from there can be transferred to children.

DDT is _____ -soluble so it accumulates in _____.

a. fat… milk
b. water… milk
c. water… streams
d. fat… streams
e. water… oceans

Inductive reasoning derives generalizations from specific cases and deductive reasoning predicts specific outcomes from general premises.
Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning.
nucleotides

DNA is composed of nucleotide units.

DNA is composed of building blocks called _____.

a. nucleic acids
b. Gs
c. nucleotides
d. adenines
e. amino acids

Fungi
Eukaryotic organisms that decompose dead organisms and absorb the nutrients are generally found in which kingdom?
Ancestors of this plant may have exhibited variation in how well their leaves conserved water. Because not much soil is present in the crevices where these plants are found, the variant plans that could conserve water may have survived better and been able to produce more offspring.
How could natural selection have led to the evolution of adaptations such as the thick, water conserving leaves of the Mother of Pearl plant?
Results are measurable data and a conclusion is a report about what you learned based on w the results
How do we distinguish between results (data) and conclusions?
in the sequence of nucleotides
How does DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) encode information?

a. in the different shapes of the DNA molecules
b. the DNA molecule is composed of many amino acids joined together to form a functional protein
c. in the number of each different nucleotide
d. the genes along the length of DNA molecules encode the information for building all the cell’s other molecules
e. in the sequence of nucleotides

experiment
Imagine your car is stalled and it will not start. If you add gasoline to the tank to see if that helps, which step of the scientific method are you performing?

a. experiment
b. question
c. observation
d. prediction

To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment.

Controlling all variable but one ensures that some other factor is not responsible for the results obtained from an experiment.

In an experiment, investigators try to control all of the variables except one – the one that tests the hypothesis. Which of the following reasons is the primary rationale for controlling variables in an experiment?

a. To eliminate alternative explanations for the results of an experiment.
b. To enable investigators to repeat the test.
c. To create a control group.

birth defects

In animals, long-term exposure to DDT can cause death or severe birth defects.

In animal populations, DDT causes _____.

a. birth defects
b. tuberculosis
c. sleeping sickness
d. the flu
e. malaria

double helix

Eukaryote DNA is organized as a double helix.

In eukaryotic cells DNA has the appearance of a _____.

a. single strand
b. letter U
c. double helix
d. triple helix
e. circle

It is testable and falsifiable.

Hypotheses must be phrased in such a way that predictions can be made and tested.

In order for a hypothesis to be able to be used in science, which of the following must be TRUE?

a. It must be reproducible.
b. It must be proven correct.
c. It represents established facts.
d. It is testable and falsifiable.
e. It must be popularly accepted.

Animalia
Kingdom _____ consists of multicellular eukaryotes that obtain their food by ingesting (eating) other organisms.
Fungi
Kingdom _____ includes eukaryotic organisms that mostly decompose organic wastes and absorb nutrients into their cells.
Plantae
Kingdom _____ consists of multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis.
Archaea
Most of the prokaryotes known as _____ live in extreme environments, such as salty lakes.
emergent properties

A molecule such as a protein has attributes not exhibited by any of its component parts (e.g., amino acids). Therefore, novel properties are emerging that were not present at a simpler level of organization.

No amino acid molecule by itself can speed up or catalyze reactions between other molecules; however, when amino acids are joined together to make a protein with catalytic properties, the new structure (enzymatic protein) can speed up the rate of a specific chemical reaction. What does this illustrate?

a. the summation theory
b. the complexity/simplicity paradox
c. polymer duality
d. energy flow, processing, and utilization
e. emergent properties

Archaea
Of the three domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, which one is prokaryotic?
domains
Organisms with prokaryotic cells are separated into two _____, Bacteria and Archaea.
protists have a membrane-bound nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
Protists and bacteria are grouped into different domains because

a. bacteria are not made of cells
b. protists have a membrane-bound nucleus, which bacterial cells lack
c. protists are photosynthetic
d. protists eat bacteria
e. bacteria decompose protists

Protists
_____ are a diverse collection of mostly single-celled eukaryotes, which are sorted into several kingdoms to reflect their evolutionary relationship.
It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.

Although it is not possible to carry out experiments to test hypotheses about evolutionary relationships between living groups or about the timing of the origin of major evolutionary innovations, such hypotheses can be evaluated by making predictions about the expected findings that would result from these hypotheses. Data can then be collected to test whether these predictions are correct.

Select the correct statement about the process of scientific inquiry.

a. If the results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis that is tested, the experiment is badly designed.
b. The goal of scientific research is to prove the stated hypothesis.
c. It is possible to test hypotheses, such as those involving historical events, without conducting experiments.

A tree and its physical environment alter each other.
Select the most accurate statement about the interactions between a tree and its physical environment.

a. A tree alters its physical environment.
b. A tree and its physical environment alter each other.
c. A tree is affected by its physical environment.

understand the behavior of entire biological systems.
Systems biology is mainly an attempt to

a. simplify complex problems by reducing the system into smaller, less complex units.
b. analyze genomes from different species.
c. build high-throughput machines for the rapid acquisition of biological data.
d. understand the behavior of entire biological systems.
e. speed up the technological application of scientific knowledge.

the sun
The energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from?
All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a common ancestry.

The genetic code is arbitrary, at least to some extent. The fact that all organisms share a single genetic code is due to their common ancestry.

The universal genetic language of DNA is common to virtually all organisms on Earth, however diverse. What is the best explanation for this fact?

a. The universal nature of the genetic language of DNA is due to coincidence.
b. The universal genetic language is explained by the chemistry of DNA and proteins.
c. All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a common ancestry.

All unicellular prokaryotic (no nucleus) organisms with peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
What are bacteria?
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protista
What are the four kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya?
Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, and Domain Eukarya
What are the three domains by which all living organisms are classified?
prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Prokaryotic cells lack the nucleus and other organelles found in eukaryotic cells.

What are the two main types of cells?

a. bacteria and archaea
b. plant and animal
c. bacteria and protists
d. prokaryotes and eukaryotes
e. bacteria and eukaryotes

a hypothesis is a statement that can be tested.
What is a hypothesis?
a law is a statement that is relevant and true.
What is a law?
a theory is a statement that has not been tested.
What is a theory?
a population
What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type occupying a defined area?
molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

Each level of biological structure builds on the level before it.

What is the CORRECT order for the hierarchy of biological organization from the least to the most complex?

a. molecule, organelle, tissue, cell, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
b. molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
c. molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, ecosystem, community
d. molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, ecosystem, community, population
e. molecule, cell, tissue, organelle, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

The difference between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law there are very distinct. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested. A theory is a statement that has not been tested. A law is a statement that is relevant and is true.
What is the difference between hypothesis, theory, and law?
Observational investigations do not manipulate data.
What is the difference between observational and experimental investigations?
Quantitative data includes recorded measurements which can be organized into tables or graphs and qualitative data would include observations.
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
DNA
What is the molecule that can account for both the unity and the diversity of life?
The conclusion is a statement about the experiment’s results. As a report of your data, it can’t be considered wrong even if the results don’t support your hypothesis. You have learned that your hypothesis does not answer your original research question.
What is the relationship between the conclusion and the hypothesis?
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
What is the theory of natural selection?
Metabolic cooperation between prokaryotic cells forms a biofilm that allows bacterial colonies to transport nutrients and waste. Biofilms may damage industrial equipment or cause tooth decay.

This emergent property emerges at the community level, due to the interactions among prokaryotic species forming the biofilm.

Which example illustrates a property that emerges at the community level?

a. Photosynthesis takes place only when pigment molecules are arranged in a specific way in an intact chloroplast.
b. Nitrogen cycling is the process by which nitrogen from the atmosphere and decomposed organic materials are converted by soil bacteria to compounds that can be assimilated by plants.
c. Metabolic cooperation between prokaryotic cells forms a biofilm that allows bacterial colonies to transport nutrients and waste. Biofilms may damage industrial equipment or cause tooth decay.

the use of DNA as the information storage molecule

All cells (discovered so far) use DNA to store information.

Which of the following attributes is common in both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?

a. a membrane-enclosed nucleus
b. generally about the same size
c. the use of DNA as the information storage molecule
d. membrane-enclosed organelles
e. the use of proteins as information storage molecules

the structure and function of DNA
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?

a. natural selection
b. emergent properties
c. matching DNA nucleotide sequences
d. the structure and function of DNA
e. descent with modification

If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
Which of the following best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?

a. If my hypothesis is correct, I can expect certain test results.
b. If my observations are accurate, they will support my hypothesis.
c. If my experiments are set up right, they will lead to a testable hypothesis.
d. If my prediction is correct, it will lead to a testable hypothesis.
e. If I generate a testable hypothesis, tests and observations will support it.

nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
Which of the following is a CORRECT sequence of levels in life’s hierarchy, proceeding downward from an individual animal?

a. organ system, nervous tissue, brain
b. brain, organ system, nerve cell, nervous tissue
c. organism, organ system, tissue, cell, organ
d. nervous system, brain, nervous tissue, nerve cell
e. organ system, tissue, molecule, cell

observing what other students in your class are wearing
Which of the following is an example of discovery science?

a. testing a possible solution to a video game
b. observing what other students in your class are wearing
c. determining the fastest route to drive from your apartment to school
d. guessing the likely questions on an exam

testing whether or not dead batteries are preventing a TV remote from working
Which of the following is an example of hypothesis-driven science?

a. sequencing the human genome
b. observing the activities of a pride of lions
c. testing whether or not dead batteries are preventing a TV remote from working
d. surveying the distribution of various majors at your school

the fish swam in a zigzag motion
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?

a. the contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds
b. the fish swam in a zigzag motion
c. the six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks
d. the plant’s height is 25 centimeters (cm)
e. the temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C

All of the above are correct.

These are all examples of unity in diversity.

Which of the following is an example of “unity in diversity”?

a. The structure of DNA is the same in all organisms.
b. All organisms, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes, use essentially the same genetic code.
c. The forelimbs of all mammals have the same basic structure, modified for different environments.
d. All of the above are correct.

Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
Which of the following is NOT an observation or inference on which Darwin’s theory of natural selection is based?

a. A population can become adapted to its environment over time.
b. Because of overproduction of offspring, there is competition for limited resources.
c. Poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring.
d. There is heritable variation among individuals.
e. Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment will generally produce more offspring.

It generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope.

A scientific theory is more than an interesting idea. It must stand up to constant scrutiny from skeptical researchers.

Which of the following is TRUE of a scientific theory?

a. It must demonstrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups.
b. It is only accepted after the person who came up with it has died.
c. It generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope.
d. It is a method or device that applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.
e. It is formulated by many scientists over drinks at a convention.

observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment
Which of the following lists the steps of the scientific method in their proper order?

a. question, observation, hypothesis, prediction, experiment
b. observation, question, hypothesis, prediction, experiment
c. observation, question, hypothesis, experiment, prediction
d. observation, question, prediction, hypothesis, experiment

A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.
Which of the following statements is TRUE of a hypothesis?

a. A hypothesis can be supported or rejected through experimentation.
b. A hypothesis can be proved.

The first living cell on Earth came from outer space.

An experiment could not be designed to test this statement. Science neither supports nor rejects this idea.

Which of the following statements could NOT be supported or rejected by a scientific experiment?

a. College students think football is more fun to watch than baseball.
b. The first living cell on Earth came from outer space.
c. Grass is green because it contains chlorophyll.

Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
Which of the following statements best distinguishes hypotheses from theories in science?

a. Theories are proven true; hypotheses are often falsified.
b. Hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers.
c. Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
d. Theories are hypotheses that have been proved.
e. Hypotheses and theories are essentially the same thing.

They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.

Not all experiments are performed under laboratory conditions; many occur outdoors in uncontrolled conditions. Scientists must account for these variations when designing experiments.

Which of the following statements is NOT true of scientific experiments?

a. They must occur under carefully controlled conditions found in a laboratory.
b. They must be well documented.
c. They yield useful results regardless of whether the hypothesis is supported or rejected.

They recycle within the ecosystem, being constantly reused.

Nutrients cycle through the ecosystem by processes such as decomposition of organic debris.

Which of the following statements is TRUE about chemical nutrients in an ecosystem?

a. They depend on sunlight as their source.
b. They cannot be obtained from decomposition.
c. They flow through the system, losing some nutrients in the process.
d. They exit the ecosystem in the form of heat.
e. They recycle within the ecosystem, being constantly reused.

You learned in elementary school that as temperature drops, liquids change into solid form. You are given an unfamiliar liquid and hypothesize that it will become solid if you put it in the freezer.

This is deductive reasoning. You are predicting specific results based on general principles.

Which of these examples illustrates deductive reasoning?

a. You come down with the flu after you pretended to be sick so you could skip work to attend a concert. Now you decide that fate always punishes you for bad behavior.
b. You learned in elementary school that as temperature drops, liquids change into solid form. You are given an unfamiliar liquid and hypothesize that it will become solid if you put it in the freezer.
c. You and your roommate both drank two cups of coffee before an exam, and both of you got a better than average mark on the exam. You hypothesize that coffee drinking improved academic performance.

digestive

The digestive system is composed of structures such as the stomach and small intestines.

Which of these is an organ system?

a. stomach
b. mucosa
c. dog
d. digestive
e. gamete

Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.

They concluded that the immediate benefits of DDT outweighed the possible long-term harmful effects.

Which one of the following statements is TRUE?

a. DDT does not help prevent disease from passing from agricultural animals to humans.
b. Cost was a major factor in the United States government’s decision to ban DDT.
c. Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.
d. DDT cannot accumulate in the fats of animals.
e. The DDT ban in the United States has made it very difficult to control agricultural insect pests.

Eukarya

Plants and certain algae are multicellular photosynthetic organisms included in the kingdom Plantae of the domain Eukarya.

Which taxonomic domain includes multicellular photosynthetic organisms?

a. Plantae
b. Archaea
c. Eukarya
d. Fungi
e. Bacteria

They are the lowest level on life’s hierarchy of organization that can carry out all the activities required for life. All organisms are composed of cells.
Why are cells considered the basic units of life?
Biology is a science since it takes care to interpret the nature, according to the scientific method, which establishes the resolution of hypotheses raised by the researcher, by means of using different techniques for the creation of representative models of nature.
Why is Biology a Science?
Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life and it explains the most fundamental aspects of all life on earth. It accounts for the common features shared by all forms of life due to the descent from a common ancestor.
Why is evolution considered the core theme of biology?

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