U.S History Chapters 15 & 16 Review

grew cash crops and large amounts of wheat (North or South)
North
agrarian economy- plantations and farms – cotton was king (North or South)
South
bad roads and less railroads lead to slower growth of cities (North or South)
South
grew cotton, tobacco, and indigo (North or South)
South
not as many schools, private tutors (North or South)
South
bad working conditions- child labor (North or South)
North
public education and schools (North or South)
North
Missouri Compromise
1820, prohibited slavery in territory acquired in Louisiana that was north of 3630 and admitted Maine as a free state and Missouri as a slave state to maintain balance in Congress
Wilmot Proviso
said slavery should be prohibited in any lands acquired from Mexico, Calhoun disagreed and thought that not Congress nor territorial gov’t can ban slavery
Compromise of 1850
1) CA free state 2)no restriction on slavery in Mexico territory 3) New Mexico favored in border dispute with Texas 4) slave trade banned in D.C. 5) stronger Fugitive Slave Law – RESULT: postponed the breakup of the Union
What did Harriet Beecher Stowe write and what is the significance?
wrote “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” which showed the evils of slavery and how brutal and inhumane it was, best seller
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves, anyone who aided a runaway was fined up to $1,000 or imprisoned, instead of helping Southerners it made Northerners more antislavery, very hard to enforce
Underground Railroad
a network of free African-Americans and whites that helped runaways to freedom
popular sovereignty
allowing the people of a region decide whether or not to allow slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act
repealed the Missouri Compromise, allowed people in territories/states to decide whether or not to allow slavery regardless of the 3630, South liked this act
border ruffians
proslavery voters from Missouri that crossed the border to Kansas to vote in its elections- illegal, traveled in armed groups
why was Kansas called Bleeding Kansas?
civil war within Kansas between proslavery and antislavery groups, showed how popular sovereignty could not work peacefully
what parties joined to form the Republican party?
antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free-soilers
what was the Republican party’s main goal?
to prevent slavery from spreading into territories
what was the Dred Scott Case? what’s the significance?
Chief Justice Taney said that the Constitution protected slavery (Fifth Amendment protects property) and how all territories might have slavery
Lincoln-Douglas debates
Lincoln (Republican) challenged Douglas (Democrat) to a series of debates, slavery was the main topic, Lincoln said “a house divided against itself cannot stand”, after debates Lincoln lost in Senate but won President
John Brown
abolitionist who used violence, led raid on Harper’s Ferry, was tried and executed which created an uproar
what is a martyr?
someone who dies for a cause, example: John Brown
secession
withdrawal from the Union
why did the South secede?
feared the Republican gov’t wouldn’t protect their rights and liberties
advantages of the North during Civil War
larger population, more industry, more abundant resources
advantages of the South during Civil War
defending their own land, tradition of military service and training
weaknesses of the North during Civil War
opinion about the war was divided and shaky, support for the war was not always strong
weaknesses of the South during Civil War
fewer factories to produce weapons and supplies, fewer railroads- hard to transport food, weapons, and supplies
what was the goal of the North
to win the war and bring Southern states back into the Union
what was the goal of the South
to preserve slavery and their way of life
blockade
to block off an area by using troops or warships to prevent people or supplies from going in and out- strategy used by North
Emancipation Proclamation
Jan 1, 1863- signed by Lincoln after battle of Antietam, freed slaves in Confederacy
Gettysburg Address
after battle of Gettysburg, “Four score and seven years ago..”, 2 minute speech by Lincoln
Second Inaugural Address
Lincoln said, “With malice toward none and charity toward all…” he meant that the Union should accept Southerners back into the Union
Appomattox Court House
there Lee and his troops surrendered to General Grant and the Union on April 9, 1865
voluntary work force (North or South)
North
many immigrants working for low wages (North or South)
North
had slavery (North or South)
South
little capital, much debt (North or South)
South
industrial economy- factories, manufactured items, textiles (North or South)
North
had railroad, steam boats, etc. for more rapid city growth (North or South)
North

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