U.S. History Chapter 26 Review

Long Telegram
document sent to the state department that described the mentality of the Soviets
McCarran/Internal Security Act
act that gave the govt. the power to arrest Communists during a national emergency
Klaus Fuchx
spy who gave valuable information to the Soviets about the atomic bomb
fallout shelters
what families built to protect themselves from nuclear radiation
Warsaw Pact
mutual alliance system that the Soviets created with their allies in response to NATO
House Un-American Activities Committee
committee created in the late 1930s to investigate communism in the United States
Project Venona
project in which the U.S. cracked the Soviet spy code
Mao Zedong
leader of the Chinese communists
containment
term used for restricting communism
Czechoslovakia
nation that fell to the communists in February 1948
September 2, 1949
date when the Soviets tested their atomic bomb
Winston Churchill
British leader who said that an iron curtain had fallen across Eastern Europe
Alger Hiss
American diplomat who was eventually convicted for perjury
Cold War
intense rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union
Iran & Guatemala
countries where covert operations replaced one government with government that is friendly to the U.S. (2)
Joseph Stalin
first Soviet leader to declare that communism and capitalism could not coexist
China
large, populous nation that fell to communism in the fall of 1949
conformity
the best defense against being accused of being a communist in the 1950s
hydrogen bomb
in the early 1950s, the U.S. and Soviet Union both tested the ____
Joseph Welch
army attorney who was brave enough to challenge McCarthy
Greece & Turkey
countries where containment was first tested (2)
military
during and after the Korean War, the government started a program to build up the_____
Dean Acheson
Truman’s adviser who told him to be strong with the Soviets
Truman Doctrine
document that stated that the U.S. would help free people that were trying to fight communism
Berlin
the Soviets blockaded this city to keep out Western influence
Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia
nations that were supposed to remain friendly to the Soviets (5)
Hungary
country that fell to the communists in 1956
Francis Gary Powers
American pilot of a U-2 spy plane that was shot down over Soviet airspace
Sputnik
first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, launched by the Soviets in 1957
Hollywood Ten
screenwriters who refused to cooperate with Congress
1946-1990
years of the Cold War
Declaration of Liberated Europe
asserted the “right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live”
Potsdam
Truman and Stalin work out a deal on Germany
satellite nation
not under direct Soviet control, but must remain communist and friendly to the Soviet Union
iron curtain
separation of Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West
George Kennan
American diplomat in Moscow who wrote the Long Telegram
Marshall Plan
would give European nations American aid to rebuild their economies
Berlin airlift
American cargo planes supplied Berliners with food, medicine, and coal until the blockade was lifted
NATO
members agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked
limited war
war fought to achieve a limited objective, such as containing communism
subversion
effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government
loyalty review program
established by Truman to screen all federal employees to make sure that they were not communists
J. Edgar Hoover
FBI Director who was not satisfied with the loyalty review program
Whittaker Chambers
Time magazine editor and former member of the Communist Party who told the HUAC that several government officials were former communists or spies
perjury
lying under oath
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
New York couple who were communists, and were arrested by the FBI and charged for heading a Soviet spy ring
Joseph R. McCarthy
Wisconsin senator who stated that there were 205 known communists who were still working for the State Department
McCarthyism
his tactic of damaging reputations with vague and unfounded charges
Army-McCarthy hearings
televised interrogations of McCarthy’s bullying witnesses
censure
formal disapproval
fallout
radiation left over after a nuclear blast
massive retaliation
policy of threatening to use nuclear weapons if a communist state tried to seize territory by force
NASA
created by Congress in 1958 (the year after Sputnik was launched) to coordinate research in rocket science and space exploration
National Defense Education Act
provided funds for training and education in science, math, and foreign languages
brinkmanship
willingness to go on the brink of war for the other side to back down
covert
hidden
CIA
conducted covert operations to prevent communist uprisings in other countries
developing nations
nations that still had mainly agricultural economies
Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet leader by 1956
summit
formal face-to-face meeting of leaders from different countries to discuss important matters
military-industrial complex
new relationship between the military establishment and the defense industry

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