Although he began as a pacifist, which president ordered more military interventions than any other?
When Williams Jennings Bryan was Secretary of State, what two things did he feel compelled to bring to the world? What new treaty did he create?
Christianity and Democracy.
Developed idea of “cooling off treaties”. Wanted to get a fresh start in Latin America, so he apologized to Columbia for Panama
In Mexico, why did Wilson withdraw his support of Carranza?
Carranza launched a reform program which endangered American oil interests.
What did Pancho Villa do to show his displeasure of Wilson withdrawing his support?
Villa got revenge by leading an attack on Columbus, New Mexico and other atrocities against Americans
Who was sent into Mexico with troops to find Pancho Villa?
Why did this Mexican Expedition prove useful to the American Army?
Although they did not find Vila, they found Mexican troops and numerous problems with his men and equipment.
What was Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy?
Increased number in troops to try and preserve the peace.
What countries were part of the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance?
Triple Entente- Britain, France and Russia
Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire.
US joined in 1917
What were the new inventions of destruction? What was the “key” to all the carnage?
Machine guns, high velocity rifles, poison gas, aerial bombing, land mines, flame throwers and tanks. The “key” was machine guns.
What was the key to victory after everything bogged down into Trench warfare?
Methods of dislodging defender from trench lines.
Artillery- created more hiding places and made it hard to advance.
Poison gas- hard to control, and never know until too late.
Planes- not enough punch or accuracy.
Tanks- best solution, and very successful when fully utilized.
Who did we support during the war? How can you tell, since we gave to both sides?
Kept normal relations with both sides while looking for a solution for peace. Hard to keep neutral, because many wanted to help Britain. We gave $2 billion to Britain, and only $27 million to Germany.
What famous ocean liner was sunk in sight of England, but killed 1198 people in 1915?
Why did the Sussex Pledge not succeed?
Both sides did not want a fair and impartial peace, but something advantageous to them.
What was the Zimmerman letter, and what did it force Wilson to do?
German Foreign Minister asked Mexican Minister to urge Mexican government to declare war on US if US declared war on Germany. In return, Germany would pay a large fee, and return Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico to Mexican control.
What was the slogan for Wilson’s 1916 campaign? What was his nickname?
“He kept us out of war.”
“Peace between equals.”
Nicknamed the peace president.
What were Wilson’s five key principles for a lasting peace?
Freedom of the seas
Right of self-determination
Security against aggression
Democratic government for all
How could WWI be best described with 4 million men & all resources diverted for war?
Total (industrialized) war
What was used to justify segregation in the US armed forces?
Why was US industry struggling to get workers?
War cut off immigration, consequently reducing the labor pool. 4 million workers were lost to the draft in 1917 and 1918.
What happened to unemployment, wages, and work hours during the war?
Unemployment fell from 8.5% in 1915 to 1.2% in 1918.Wages rose 137%. Work hours fell from 55 to 51.
What was Committee on Public Information supposed to do? What was its Dark Side?
Wanted the truth about war to go out, but also saw as an opportunity to bring all of America together (Nationalism). Worked well as public relations, but had a dark side.
What did America bring to the Entente in 1918?
America brought much needed equipment, troops, and supplies.
What was the difference in the use of men between the French and Gen Pershing?
The British and French initially wanted to use the Americans as “replacements” for their troops. Pershing insisted they fight as American units under American commanders.
Although we lost almost 50,000 to war, what killed over 500,000 after the war?
A flu epidemic in the US
Who were the Big Four at Paris’ Versailles Treaty? What was used as basis for peace?
The US, Great Britain, France and Italy. Wilson’s 14 points.
What was League of Nations supposed to do? What did Wilson hope it would do?
Supposed to function as the world’s parliament and judiciary, establish rules and settle disputes. Wilson hoped League would re-energize world peace movement after Versailles failures.
What was the problem with getting America into the League of Nations?
Republicans controlled Senate, so would be hard to get Treaty of Versailles ratified. Non-ratification would mean US not part of league.
What was the Red Scare in 1919? What were the results of all the arrests?
Attorney General Palmer ordered raids on numerous socialist radicals to seize their weapons and expose them as anarchists.
6000 people taken into custody for weeks, but most were let go. 500 deported due to immigrant violations.
The 1920’s was a unique blend of what four values?
Prosperity, cultural experimentation, political conservatism, and religious fundamentalism
What happened for the first time in urban areas?
More people lived in urban areas rather than rural areas
Why were traditionalists appalled at the social upheaval of the 1920’s?
Everything was a contradiction of newness, instead of tradition, emotion over reason, and youth over old.
What was Nativism? And yet why was this a bad thing?
An anti-immigration campaign. Bombings and upheaval had to be from the massive influx of foreigners. If we stop foreigners, we can return to normal. Yet we needed them, as half of men and one third of women working in industry, were immigrants!
Why was the National Quotas Act of 1924 passed to restrict immigration?
Industrialists didn’t need as many workers.
Progressives lost hope of their Americanization.
Labor believed new workers were just “tools” of industry.
What one group of immigrants was ignored, and thus NOT covered by the new Quotas?
What was the Ku Klux Klan against?
They were “anti-negro, anti-alien, anti-red, anti-Catholic, anti-Jew, anti-Darwin, anti-Modern, anti-Liberal, Fundamentalist, moral, and militantly Protestant”
What was the basis for the new fundamentalism? Who was their leader?
They were hostile to any other faith but theirs. Denounced Darwin’s theories on evolution. Leader was William Jennings Bryant.
What got John Scopes arrested for teaching? Who defended him?
Was arrested for teaching evolution. Supported by Clarence Darrow.
Although he lost, what did Darwin accomplish?
He made fundamentalism look “problematic”. This backlash took many fundamentalists out of politics, but the ban on evolution unofficially upheld since most textbooks didn’t mention it.
What did the 18th Amendment accomplish? Why were most people not serious about it?
No manufacture of sale of alcohol. Exceptions for medicinal and religious uses, as well as personal consumption. Found to encourage criminal activity and not abstinence. Although it did lead to less drinking, but initiated bootlegger crime spree and black market. Basically became a joke with only limited enforcement.
What was the “flapper” image?
Short hair and skirt at the knees, dancing the Charleston & wearing more makeup & smoking, demanding sexual fulfillment.
What was tried to improve sexual relations?
Movement to treat women as equals in order to improve sexual relations, in a marriage of partners.
Prolonged adolescence created more trouble as kids searched for thrills by doing what?
Heavy drinking-casual sex-search for excitement.
Who was the first “vamp” and the first “it” girl?
First “vamp” – Theda Bara
First “it” girl – Clara Bow
What was the Harlem Renaissance? Who led it?
First self-conscious black literary and artistic movement. Led by Alain Locke.
What was Garveyism? What happened to Marcus Garvey and why?
Thought that all blacks needed to help themselves and start their own societies with their own culture and denounced all others. Idea grew, but he was convicted of fraud and sentenced to 5 years. He was later pardoned by President Wilson, but sent back to Jamaica.
What was the average growth percent from 1922 to 1929? What about per capita income growth?
Per capita income was up by 30%- $681 a year
What durable goods were people buying at this time?
Cars, washers, tractors, refrigerators, irons, radios and vacuum cleaners.
Besides a house, what two things would most people buy on credit?
Cars and radios
What were the two new forms of entertainment?
Motion pictures and radios
What was the most significant economic & social development of the 1920’s? Why?
Automobile. Began the driving society with short weekend vacations, shopping trips & romance. Appealed to people’s desires to be sexually attractive, show power and control, to escape anonymity, all being motivators to get someone to buy a product that they don’t need.
What was the Theory of Relativity? What was the “Uncertainty Principle”?
Space time and mass were NOT absolute, but were relative to the location and motion of the observer.
“One can never know the position of velocity of an electron, because the very act of measuring it would affect the behavior of the particle.”
Basically, what was modernism? What were modernist artists trying to accomplish?
At one time anarchical cultural revolt against conventional tastes, but also a rebellious mood full of contradictions.
Artists would use their imaginations to create a subjective world based on their view of reality.
Who were the leaders of Modernism in Europe?
Ezra Pound- sensation of London before and during the war.
TS Eliot- wrote a monument to modernism with his poem the Waste Land
Gertrude Stein- moved to Paris and tried to capture in words what painters were painting. Coined the phrase ” a rose is a rose is a rose is a rose”. Her Paris salon became a gathering place for many modernist artists.
Why did many intellectuals and artists flee America for Europe?
They felt American culture becoming too anti-intellectual, small-mided, materialistic and puritanical.
Who were some of the great authors of this time, and their great works?
Sinclair Lewis- Main Street, Babitt & Elmer Gantry
F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby
Ernest Hemingway- A Farewell to Arms
William Faulkner- The Sound and the Fury
Why did the Progressive Movement dissolve after Wilson’s second term?
Leaders die- TR in 1919 & Wilson in 1920
Americans were looking for a new kind of leader
Americans wanted prosperity due to industry & consumption
They had accomplished old goals, and had no new ones
What were Harding’s goals as President? Who was the “Ohio Gang”?
Goals were to stop reform & create partnerships between the government and business
The Ohio Gang was:
Herbert Hoover- Secretary of Commerce
Charles Hughes- Secretary of State
Andrew Mellon- Secretary of Treasury
Harry Daugherty- Attorney General
What did the Conservative Supreme Court do during Harding’s term?
Child Labor Laws, outlaw striking, set minimum wages for women, and limit Federal regulation of powers
Harding was the first to try what with taxes?
Try trickle down economics
What did we do about Europe’s War Debt?
We loaned money to Germany, who used that to pay Britain, who then paid us
What did the Five Powers Treaty try to accomplish?
Limited US, British, French, Japanese, and Italian navies, and the armaments of their ships. Prevented fortifying new territories around the world. Only limited numbers on battleships; nothing else.
What did the Kellogg-Briand Treaty try to accomplish?
It was an agreement to abolish war. Briand was trying to just get America out, but Kellogg got all nations to sign that “war was NOT an option”
What was the Teapot Dome Scandal?
Ohio Gang sold appointments, judicial pardons, and police protection. Scandal occurred under Secretary of Interior- Albert Fall.
How did Calvin Coolidge see the presidency?
As a tool of Congress, not a leader
What did Hoover think about prosperity?
Felt he could make it a permanent fixture in the US. “We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land”
What did Hoover want to do with business?
Did not want government to regulate, but wanted business to cooperate through associationalism. Business could share economic information, production problems, distribution, and find ways to become more efficient and profitable
What were Hoover’s successes?
Steel industry stopped 12 hour days
Railway Labor Act of 1926- collective bargaining for labor, worked at standardization of size and shape of products
What were the good things happening with our economy at the start of Hoover’s term?
Real wages rising
Stock market rising
Spreading of capitalism
What were the main causes of the Great Depression?
Stock Market speculation & Crash (stocks bought on 10% margin)
Mistakes by Federal Reserve- raised interest rates and pulled in money supply
Passed Hawley-Smoot tariff on 1930- 8% hike in food & goods
Huge wealth inequality between rich and poor
Market was saturated with consumer goods
What was the economy’s condition in 1932?
25% unemployment (13 million)
Gross National Product had lost 27%
What effects did the Depression have on society in general?
13 million out of work. Those still working got hour and wage cuts. Housing industry collapsed, factories shutdown, banks went bankrupt and closed. No fresh meat or veggies. No hope- psychologically devastating. Immigrants and farmers hit hard living paycheck to paycheck. First time in history immigrants started to leave. The poor did best. Middle class did not know what to do and did not know how or want to ask for help.
What were Hoover’s programs for people during the Depression?
Cut taxes & initiated the Hoover Dam
Got a one year moratorium on European loans
Reconstruction Finance Corporation started with $2 billion
Home Loan Bank Board loaned $2 billion to S&L’s
Why did Hoover object to giving money to the poor?
Thought people can help themselves
What was the Bonus Army?
March on Washington by WWI veterans demanding $1000 bonus now, not in 1945. Began in Portland Oregon on trains, and grew as it moved east (reached 20,000). HR agreed, but Senate said no. President charged military with dispersing crowd. Led by Douglas MacArthur and George Patton. 100 wounded & 1 infant killed.
What did Roosevelt do after his nomination for President that no other President had ever done?
Nominated Garner as his Vice President and flew to Chicago to thank the convention personally.
What was the country like when Roosevelt was sworn in?
The country was a wreck:
Production was down 50% with over 100,000 bankruptcies
Investment fell from $16 billion down to $1 billion
Banking system was on the verge of collapse with 2000+ already gone
How did Roosevelt strengthen the Banking system?
Ordered a “bank holiday” and pushed the Emergency Banking Act to make low cost loans available for private banks. After crisis eased, put in place:
Glass-Steagull Act of 1933- created FDIC ($5000)
Securities Act of 1933- Stock Exchange regulations
Securities Exchange Act of 1934- created SEC
Basically, what did the AAA do? Why did the NRA not work very well?
AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Administration- paid farmers NOT to plant crops
NRA- National Recovery Administration- tried to get businesses to cooperate. Unfortunately plans were too detailed with no room to innovate and make changes.
What were the main goals of the TVA?
Control flooding in the Tennessee River Valley by building dams
Created electricity generating stations (very cheap)
Stimulated local industry and improved river navigation
Electrified the rural communities of American backwoods
Outside of the TVA, what three major dams were built?
Grand Coulee, Hoover-Boulder Dam, and Bonneville
What was Father Charles Coughlin, and what did he promote?
He led a radio audience of 30-40 million weekly. Believed middle-class was left out and that business was taking over. Admired Mussolini and his tactics. Even went so far as to admire Hitler, and followed his lead on anti-Semitism.
What was John Maynard Keynes’ theory about the cause of the Great Depression?
Underconsumption- America not consuming enough, so its up to the government to increase wages & create new jobs. Need to get money to the people, who will then start to spend, and this spending will revive the economy.
What did the Social Security Act of 1935 accomplish?
Gave money to the poor, old and disabled.
Three part plan:
Old age pensions from employer paid worker taxes
System for unemployment compensation (insurance)
Creation of direct federal grants to pay for welfare for the disabled
What did the Fair Labor Standards Act accomplish?
Set a minimum wage. in 1940- 40 cents an hour with a 40 hour work week
What was the reality about the Wealth tax?
Increased tax on wealthy from 59% to 75% & corporations from 13% to 15%
How did women face discrimination in the workplace?
Men were favored over women
Single women were hired in favor of married women
What was the Court Packing Scheme in Roosevelt’s first term?
4 horsemen on S.C. blocked Roosevelt’s programs. Roosevelt tried to put 6 new justices on the Supreme Court, because he didn’t want them to strike down the Wagner Act and Social Security Act. Created backlash from Congress and public when told Congress that those over 70 were too old to keep up. Within 3 year, 5 SC judges retired, giving Roosevelt majority on court.
What were Roosevelt’s first moves in Foreign Policy?
Recognize the Soviet Union, effort to stimulate trade
Instituted a “Good Neighbor Policy” – Stopp meddling in Central America
Recall troops from Nicaragua & Haiti and renounce Platt Amendment
Created Reciprocal Trade Agreement
For what two reasons did most Americans want to go back into isolationism?
Great Depression & No one wanted war
How did the US respond to Japan’s invasion of Manchuria? What did the League of Nations do about it?
US responded with non-recognition and economic punishments (withheld resources)
League of Nations was powerless. Hitler came into power in 1933 and renounced membership in League. Immediately violated Versailles Treaty by increasing size of army and creating air force. Mussolini did the same for Italy.
Who did the pacifists on college campuses blame for US involvement in WWI?
What were the provisions of the Neutrality Act of 1935?
Arms embargo against belligerent nations
Prohibited loans to belligerent nations
Curtailed American travelers to belligerent nations
What were the provisions of the Neutrality Act of 1937?
Cash & Carry policy. Trade was possible, but had to pay in cash and used own ships
What was the Pact of Steel?
Germany and Italy joined forces
Differentiate between the Blitzkrieg and the Sitzkrieg
Poland surrenders which evolved into Sitzkrieg on western front.
Blitzkrieg (lightening war)- invasion into Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and France
What was significant about the Battle of Britain? What did the Atlantic Charter do?
First battle fought entirely through the air. Was an agreement for US ships to escort merchantmen to Iceland
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor in the first place? What did they accomplish?
They attacked us for resources. Launched a surprise attack and sunk battle fleet. HUGE Tactical victory
What did they miss? What were the long term consequences of the attack?
Did not destroy the dry docks and the oil farm. Mobilization ended the Great Depression and changed American economies and society.
Significance of Pearl Harbor:
Signaled end of battleship era
Forced to use Aircraft Carriers as only offensive weapon
Discredited racial stereotype of Japanese as inferior and incapable
Created a rallying cry for the war
What were the General causes of WWII?
Resentment from WWI
What were the Allies’ secret weapons?
ENIGMA Machine- decoding of German secret codes. Churchill problem. Knew of massive German bombing campaign on Coventry. Could have evacuated, but did not do so in belief that Germans might figure out that British could have read codes.
MAGIC- decoding of Japanese diplomatic codes
What was significant about the Battle of Midway?
Turning point of Pacific War and gave initiative to US. Japan never recovers.
What naval ship sank 75% of all the ships sunk in the Pacific Theater?
What was significant about Operation Overload?
D-Day. Turning point of war in Europe. Once it succeeds, only a matter of time until Germany falls
What weapon ended the war with Japan? What happened to the USS Indianapolis?
Atomic bomb. Sunk as a result of the atomic bomb
Basically, how did we win the war?
We bombed Japan twice, which eventually resulted in them surrendering.
How many people entered government service during the war?
What did Executive Order 9066 accomplish?
Moved 1st and 2nd Generation Japanese Americans from West Coast to relocation camps in middle America
Overall, how many were killed during WWII? Who lost the most?
50-60 million killed total.
Soviets lost the most with a total of 20 million