U.S. History 1302 Chapter 16 & 17

The ability of the Plains Indians to resist white expansion was severely damaged by the
destruction of the buffalo
In its treaties with Native Americans, the American goverment generally
showed little interest in honoring them
Probably the most famous of all precious metal strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and teh Big Bonanza, was
Virginia City, Nevada
In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act, which was intended to
persuade Indians to abandon their traditional tribal cultures
Partly as a result of the Ghost Dance movement, the army killed some 150 Teton Sioux at ________ in 1890.
Wounded Knee, South Dakota
Barbed wire was invented by
Joseph F. Glidden
The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the
Central Pacific and the Union Pacific
Cattle herds were driven across the unsettled grasslands of the _______ Trail on their way to the railroadto Abilene, Kansas.
Chisholm
The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the nothern plains led to the development of
open-range ranching
The Homestead Act of 1862
failed to fill the West with 160-acre family farms because most landless Americans were simply too poor to become farmers
When J.P. Morgan assembled the United States Steel, he
formed the first billion-dollar corporation
In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the ________ Act.
Sherman Antitrust
The leader of the American Railway Union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company was
Eugene Debs
In the late nineteenth century “Commodore” Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized
complex, transcontiental railroad lines
The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue “cease and desist” orders against railroads acting illegally, was the
Interstate Commerce Commission
By the end of the nineteenth century, U.S. industrial capacity
dwarfed both Great Britian’s and Germany’s
The ______ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel.
Bessemer
By the middle of the 1880s, _________ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
John D. Rockefeller
As a result of the ________, membership in the Knights Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism.
Haymarket Square riot
The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were
interregional railroad systems
Barbed wire destroyed the open-range cattle industry because it
prevented the free movement of cattle
In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on a divide-and-conquer strategy. This was known as the “_________” policy
concentration
_______ were/was essential to the culture, religion, and sustenance of the Plains Indians.
Bison
Which of the following was a law passed by Congress in 1882 that prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States? Was overturned in 1943.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Which of the following was a belief that Charles Darwin’s theory of the evolution of species also applied to social and economic institutions and practices? It asserted that the “fittest” enterprises or individuals prevailed, while those that were defective naturally faded away; society thus progressed most surely when competition was unrestricted by government.
Social Darwinism
Which of the following was a farmers’ organization founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley? It initially provided social and cultural benefits but then supported legislation, known as the Granger laws, providing for railroad regulation.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
Andrew Carnegie dominated the ________ industry.
steel
Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Demarest Lloyd were all late-nineteenth-century
radical reformers
Which of the following interests of Alexander Graham Bell’s led to the invention of the telephone?
deaf education
Known as the “Wizard of Menlo Park,” the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was
Thomas A. Edison
In the decades following the Civil War, which area of the county became known as the “breadbasket” of America?
the Plains states west of the Mississippi
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 set the pattern for government land grants by giving the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads
five square miles of public land on each side of their right-of-way for every mile of track laid.
The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the
Knights of Labor
A residential apartment building, common in New York in the late 1800s, that was built on a tiny lot without consideration of proper lighting and ventilation was known as a
tenement
In Thorstein Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) he
Correct theorized that middle-class consumption was done mainly for superficial purposes.
Urban transportation was revolutionized and urban development was redirected in the 1880s by
electric trolleys.
The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. on evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth-century
jurisprudence
A form of education which illustrated the popular desire for new information in the late nineteenth century was the
Chautauqua movement.
American painters of the late nineteenth century such as Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins painted in a style called
realism
The real name of the first great American realist, Mark Twain, was
Samuel L. Clemens.
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was
Joseph Pulitzer.
The late-nineteenth-century theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy
argued that the roots of democracy and the rule of law were found in the ancient tribes of northern Europe.
According to German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart, good teaching called for
psychological insight and imagination.
In 1869, Harvard introduced the _____ system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
elective
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of ________ which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.
pragmatism
The most influential philosopher of his times and the main exponent of pragmatism was
William James.
Middle-class families in the late nineteenth century became
smaller because women married later in life and practiced abstinence
The new nativism of the late nineteenth century was exemplified by the
American Protective Association
In 1891, James Naismith invented the game of
Basketball
Many Americans believed that ________ were responsible for cholera epidemics.
immigrants
Louis H. Sullivan was closely associated with
the development of the skyscraper
In the new types of work women found in the late nineteenth century, they
were often hired as salespersons in department stores because managers considered them easier to control than men
The response of American intellectuals such as Walt Whitman and Henry Adams to the new industrial civilization was to
denounce it as leading to the worship of money and material success
The educator John Dewey insisted that
education was the fundamental method of social progress
The late-nineteenth century theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy
argued that the roots of democracy and the rule of law were found in the ancient tribes of northern Europe.
In 1870, most American colleges were
small and intellectually stagnant with few professors of any intellectual repute
One of the first books to treat sex forthright was
Sister Carrie
In the late nineteenth century, John Hopkins, Jonas Clark, and John D. Rockerfeller were all
wealthy founders of new universities
One result of the gold and sliver rushes of the late nineteenth century was
an improved financial position for American world trade
President Cleveland intervened in the Pullman strike on the pretext that
the mail had to be delivered
Walter Camp played a major role in establishing
football as a major sport
Characters asked themselves, “what would jesus do?” in Charles M. Sheldon’s best selling Social Gospel novel
In His Steps
The Chicago’s Hull House was
Jane Addams
The community centers started by idealistic young people to guide and help the urban poor were
settlement houses
Real-life rages-to-riches experiences, like those of Andrew Carnegie, were
rare exceptions
In his frontier thesis, Fredrick Jackson Turner argued that
the frontier gave Americans their unique character
Beginning in the 1880’s, the source of American immigration shirted to new immigrants from
southern and eastern Europe
One of the causes which eventually led to restrictions on immigration was the
social Darwinists’ fear that immigrants would undermine American “racial purity”
In The Higher Learning in America, Thorstein Veblen
criticized the intrusions of business into universities
Vassar College holds the distinction of
being the first college for women
Social Gospelers believed
the church should focus on improving the lives of the poor, ending child labor, and regulating the power of big corporations

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