A. Subject Matter – based on subject field such as accounting, business, medicine, economics, marketing, engineering and the like B. 1. Time-interval – based on frequency of occurrence: daily, weekly, monthly or annually. Examples include 1. Routine weekly and monthly reports made by salesmen 2. Periodic progress reports in big corporations 3. The corporation’s annual report of operations C. Function – based on what reports do. 1. 2. Informational Reports – present facts bearing the subject 2.
Analytical Reports – analyze the facts and information gathered for the readers to understand the report easily D. Formality – the way reports are written 1. 3. Formal Reports – those that are dressed up and appropriately worded to fit the requirements of a very formal occasion; contains prefatory and supplement parts aside from the text. It has an impersonal style, hence the consistent use of the third person pronouns is followed. A report is said to be formal if: a. The material is long b. The report is to be read by many people c.
The report is to be kept for reference and use in the future Parts: a. Title Page b. Letter or Transmittal c. Table of Contents d. Abstract e. Body e. 1. Introduction e. 2. Discusssion e. 3. Conclusion e. 4. Recommendation (if any) f. Appendix 2. Informal Reports – contain only the basic parts of a report E. Length – depends on the number of pages the report contains; 1 to 10 reports are usually short reports Short Report – deals with a topic which is narrow in scope and either written formally or informally. Parts: 1. Title 2. Introduction
3. Result and findings 4. Summation F. Format – it varies with the expected outcomes, the use and the formality of the situation. The types of report according to format are the following: 1. 4. Fill-in the blanks – a type of report where results are pre-determined by the designer 2. The memorandum report – this report contains the TO, FROM, SUBJECT format entries 3. The letter report – a little more formal than the memorandum. Its has a business letter format 4. Bulletins – include information of more permanent value than memoranda.
Usually contains one to three pages but are sometimes longer and they are fastened together 5. Booklets – reports of book length. They contain covers, title pages, sometime table of contents and sometimes cover letters or letters of transmittal, depending on their purpose, readers and length II. CLASSIFICATION OF REPORTS ACCORDING TO READER-WRITER RELATIONSHIP a. 5. Internal reports – reports needed within employer-employee relationships. May move vertically upward or downwards; they may move horizontally from one department to another within a firm or form one employee to another in the same department b.
External reports – those that are concerned with the relationship of the company to the public III. The Research Report A research report presents findings of an investigation problem which developed from an unresolved conflict or situation. It utilizes different research instruments such as survey, checklist, interview, experimentation and questionnaire. The body of the report contains six main parts: introduction, research methods and procedures, results and findings, summary, conclusions and recommendations. A. Introduction (1 to 5) 1.
Background of the Study –presents the problem and the description of the condition that justifies the topic to be a researchable one. 2. Statement of the Problem – the problem should be presented clearly and accurately. It is expressed in one main problem and a series of specific questions 3. Significance of the Study – this part gives the explanation of the importance of the problem. it includes the relevance of the study to the felt need and the potential contribution of the new knowledge, policy implications and other possible uses for the results of the study 4.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study – the scope should present the number of respondents/subjects, instruments used like survey and interview and the research design such as descriptive or historical or experimental. It should limit the specific aspect of the topic of the research 5. Hypothesis – this is an intelligent guess regarding the result of the study between two or more variables. These are based on existing information or knowledge which is tested experimentally. Ordinarily, the null hypothesis us used, which may be accepted or rejected as a result of the study 6.
Definition of Terms – B. Research Methodology 1. Research population – this refers to the respondents or the subject of the study and the manner of selecting them; there is a need to explain the adoption and the sampling of the instrumentation used Total population sampling – used if all respondents were considered Random sampling – if only selected respondents are included in the study 2. Instruments used – the instruments used in gathering the data or the report Examples: 1. Questionnaire for the survey and interview of respondents 2. Apparatuses 3. Devices 4. Laboratory equipment 5.
Photograph or drawing of equipment used in the study 3. Data gathering procedure – this includes the techniques and procedures to be done and the devices to be used Primary source of data – gathered from observation, survey and interviews Secondary source of data – taken from books, magazines and other printed materials Survey – a research investigation of a problem affecting a certain group of persons or clientele. Questionnaire form – the most common format of a survey 4. Statistical treatment – this is the statistical technique used, which should be included in tallying the results of the survey.
The frequency percentage is considered the simplest with this formula: P = EF/M x 100 C. Findings of the Study This portion presents the summary of the gathered data from the survey conducted to and the statistical treatment applied to them. The data gathered should directly answer the questions in the statement of the problem and should indicate whether the null hypothesis is accepted or rejected. The result must be presented in an impartial way. The discussion of the findings should include the following: 1.
Statement of the inferences drawn from the findings, in other words implications of the result should be considered. 2. Applications and meanings of the findings 3. Suggestions for the improvement of research 4. Reasons for the differences with other researches. 5. A synthesis should be written at the end of the findings D. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations This is the final section of the body of the report. This gives the over-all view of the research. This part gives the summary of the findings or results of the survey or investigation and from the findings the conclusions can be drawn.
The recommendation maybe expressed in the form of suggestions for possible changes in policy or existing conditions to strengthen the solution of the problem under study. The recommendation offered may include the following: 1. Suggestions for further research 2. Suggestions for possible changes in the policies of the organization 3. The meanings of the studies which are related to the present study NOTE: to get the sample size use the SLOVEN’S FORMULA: n = N/ 1+Ne? where: n = to the sample size N = the total population e? = margin of error? = . 05?