Three schools of counselling psychology
Personality (or psychosexual) development is marked simply by five distinct stages. The very first is the Oral stage (0-18 months) and is and also by the infants need in order to reduce feelings of stress e. g. hunger. If the infants’ needs are not met, this could cause the adult individuality to become pessimistic (Abraham, 1924). The other stage is the particular Anal stage (18 months-3 years). The main source associated with pleasure comes from retaining and passing faeces. Freud (1917) suggested that in case the child doesn’ t learn the acceptable behaviour, it may cause loss of do it yourself esteem in adulthood. The third stage is the Phallic phase (3 years-adolescence).
This is characterised by becoming familiar with the genital organs of both sexes as well as the Oedipus complex. The child may unconsciously long for typically the parent of the reverse sex and be hostile in the direction of the parent of the identical having sex for having that person. The fourth stage is the particular Latency stage (adolescence) where they resolve their childhood conflicts through masturbation plus have romantic relationships, get to school and find out adult responsibility.
Most criticisms aimed in psychoanalysis are because this lacks empirical evidence in addition to is not seen as falsifiable (Popper, 1986). It also criticised on typically the grounds that is phallocentric. It is usually argued that typically the theory is not generalisable due to the fact Freud’ s ideas had been based on a demographically restricted sample of individuals The humanistic school offers therapies such as the individual centred approach (Rogers, 1902) and reality therapy amongst others.
This individual believed that humans have an actualising tendency to achieve their full potential. This emphasises the role regarding over socialisation in stopping people to perceive by themselves and the environment properly, in addition to consequently not being able to personal actualise. Through experience together with clients, he found that each person’ s reality is different, depending on their perceptions and experiences. This individual called this perception the person’ s ‘ internal frame of reference’. Any time perceptions become maladaptive, therapy should focus on each individuals’ world to assist them live more fully, making use of the core conditions of congruence, unconditional positive respect and empathy.
Rogers believed that encounters are valued as optimistic or negative according in order to whether they maintain their own actualising tendency. Through interaction with others, a personal concept develops. This personal concept/regard needs to be positively regarded from other folks. This may lead to selective perception regarding experiences so that they will fall in accord with all the individuals’ conditions of really worth. Experiences which don’ capital t agree are distorted and aren’ t put in to the self structure. This specific causes incongruence and psychological maladjustment. For congruence to occur, all experiences need to be assimilated along with other principles of the self. Talk therapy aims to recognise incongruous experiences, whilst showing empathy and unconditional positive respect.