Olive tree shows a great capacity to digest the long summer H2O deficit by agencies of legion strategic devices aimed to command H2O losingss and increase H2O consumption from dirt. Besides the anatomical and morphological characteristics of foliages ( little size, high specific foliage weight, midst and waxen cuticle, haired foliage surfaces, high stomatous denseness ) , typical versions of drought-tolerant workss, olive nowadayss specialised physiological and biochemical mechanisms.
Under terrible drouth emphasis, olive tree significantly lowers H2O content and H2O potencies of its tissues set uping a high possible gradient between foliages and roots ( predawn LWP values of ?7.0 MPa and ?3.5 MPa, severally ) which allows root system to use H2O up to dirty H2O potency of -2.5 MPa. Such value is good below the lasting wilting point, measured at -1.5 MPa for most of the fruit species. Under such conditions, and particularly in dirt characterized by a good H2O storage capacity, olive workss have entree to a greater and readily available dirt H2O ( between field capacity and -2.5 MPa ) , so defying long drought period ( Xiloyannis, Gucci and Dichio 2003 ) . In olive tree, stomata increasingly cut down their activity get downing from predawn LWP below -0.9 MPa, and they can stay unfastened up to -7.0 MPa ( Xiloyannis et al. 1999 ) . A progressive closing of pore as predawn LWP decreased was observed in other fruit tree species but their stomatous closing was reached at values of predawn LWP runing from -1.5 to -2.5 MPa ( Lakso 1979 ; Castel and Fereres, 1982 ) . Under nerve-racking conditions, olive tissues are able to transpirate big sums of H2O, accumulated during the afternoon and dark, guaranting a certain degree of leaf functionality. As a affair of fact, olive foliages can give up to transpiration about 60 % of the H2O stored in their tissues lending to the demands of transpiration as emphasis increases up to extreme values ( Xiloyannis et al. 1999 ) . At predawn LWP of -6.0 MPa, olive maintains a certain transpirative and photosynthetic activity ( around 10 % and 20 % , severally, of that of well-watered workss ) , that allows the workss to bring forth assimilates and roll up them in the assorted variety meats. Particularly, long-run dirt H2O shortage reduces in immature olive trees the development of the above-ground variety meats with regard to the under-ground portion ( roots and stump ) , so raising the under/above-ground ratio. The consequence is peculiarly marked in leaf country, that is significantly reduced under rainfed conditions ( 47 % lesser than irrigated workss at the 7th twelvemonth from seting ) ( Dichio et al. 2002 ) . Such decrease of canopy size limits the H2O demand for transpiration.
Another scheme adopted by the olive tree to get the better of H2O shortage is osmotic accommodation which consists in either active synthesis and accretion of osmotically active compounds ( saccharides, some aminoacids, organic and inorganic acids, cations and anions ) within cells ( active osmotic accommodation ) or loss of H2O from works cells, with the attendant addition in osmolyte concentration ( inactive osmotic accommodation ) ( Xiloyannis et al. 1999 ; Cataldi et Al. 2000 ; Sofo et Al. 2004b ; Dichio et Al. 2009 ) . This physiological procedure is measured by the fluctuation in osmotic potency within works tissues ( Dichio et al. 2007 ) . A higher concentration of osmolytes ( peculiarly Osmitrol, glucose and proline ) facilitates H2O diffusion in cells and maintains the turgor of works tissues indispensable for works physiological activity. The care of cell turgor in roots besides avoids or delays the separation of these variety meats from the dirt. Under drought conditions, olive trees activate metabolic procedures to bring forth substances that increase cell tissue rigidness, probably by modulating some enzymes involved in lignin biogenesis such as peroxidases ( Sofo et al. 2004b ) . This mechanism consequences in an addition in elastic modulus ( ? ) as cell walls become more stiff or thicker. Higher ? values produces a faster turgor loss of cells for a given per centum of desiccation. An addition of cell tissue rigidness together with low values of ?? , due to active and inactive osmotic accommodation, can be responsible for the ascertained high gradients of H2O potency between foliages and dirt, and therefore can ease H2O extraction from the dirt.
In olive trees, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes significantly increase in foliages and roots of drought-stressed workss ( Sofo et al. 2004a ) . These enzymes limit the cellular amendss caused by AOS, so leting the works to keep a photosynthetic efficiency besides under terrible drouth conditions ( Xiloyannis, Gucci and Dichio 2003 ) . Significant additions of lipoxygenase ( LOX ) activity and malondialdehyde ( MDA ) content, two markers of oxidative emphasis, were besides found during the progressive increase of drought emphasis in both foliage and root tissues of olive workss ( Sofo et al. 2004a, 2004b ) , so proposing that H2O shortage is associated with the oxidization of membrane lipoids. In olive workss under drouth emphasis, the harm of photosynthetic setup, and the ensuing lessening in photosynthetic efficiency, occurs peculiarly by agencies of the light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II ( photoinhibition ) and the oxidization of chloroplastic pigments ( photo-oxidation ) ( Angelopoulos, Dichio and Xiloyannis 1996 ; Sofo et Al. 2009 ) . Although these amendss, olive tree is able to retrieve its H2O position faster ( 5 yearss ) than other fruit tree species even if it shows a slow recovery of photosynthesis and transpiration ( Angelopoulos, Dichio and Xiloyannis 1996 ) .
Finally, olive tree can react to short period emphasis by modulating the activity and the look of its root H2O channels ( aquaporins ) ( Tataranni 2009 ) . As the inauspicious conditions continue, root suberification occurs, so avoiding desiccation. In fact, an addition of suberification procedure was observed in root cell walls at exodermis and endodermis degree. Under such conditions, root activity recovery is preceded by the outgrowth of root anlage ( Tataranni 2009 ) .
Effectss of irrigation direction on productiveness, and fruit and oil quality
By and large, irrigation raises significantly the vegetive growing of olive tree and its productive response. This leads to early bearing, steady and satisfactory outputs, and betterment of fruit characteristics. In add-on, as the productive tree public presentations are non influenced by moderate degrees of drouth emphasis, a decreased irrigation is recommended in waterless and semi-arid countries to salvage H2O. Deficit irrigation schemes in olive groves can be applied following different attacks ( Fereres and Soriano 2007 ) .
Sustained shortage irrigation ( SDI ) distributes a decreased H2O volume, as per centum of ETc, throughout the whole irrigation season. Many surveies, carried out under diverse pedo-climatic conditions, compared irrigation governments based on different degrees of ETc damages and their influence on fruit and oil quality of different olive cultivars. Patumi et Al. ( 2002 ) , Magliulo et Al. ( 2003 ) , d’Andria et Al. ( 2004 ) , Grattan et Al. ( 2006 ) , Berenguer et Al. ( 2006 ) and Dabbou et Al. ( 2010 ) found that a damages runing from 66 to 75 % of ETc is adequate to obtain good outputs similar to those harvested from to the full irrigated trees. However, phenolic compounds in oils significantly decreased go throughing from the lowest to the highest irrigation degrees. Although decrease in polyphenols content modified somewhat centripetal belongingss of oils diminishing their resentment and bite, it did non compromise oil storage capacity. Stefanoudaki et Al. ( 2009 ) referred about a contradictory consequence of irrigation which decreased contents of both unwanted ( pungent and acrimonious properties ) and favorable centripetal qualities ( intense green notes ) . As a affair of fact, irrigation could be managed to run into consumer ‘s peculiar demands. Patumi et Al. ( 1999 ) , Tovar, Motilva and Paz Romero ( 2001 ) and Tovar et Al. ( 2002 ) studied the consequence of several irrigation interventions on L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity ( PAL ) in developing fruits. PAL is the cardinal enzyme in phenolic biogenesis and a high PAL activity is associated with the accretion of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in tissues of several fruit species ( Weaver and Herrmann 1997 ; Ryan et Al. 2002 ) . PAL activity and phenolic degree decreased during fruit development and were influenced by irrigation, being lowered as the H2O supplied increased.
Regulated shortage irrigation ( RDI ) , foremost proposed by Chalmers, Mitchell and new wave Heek ( 1981 ) , reduces H2O supplies during specific periods characterized by a less works esthesia to H2O emphasis with minimum effects on output. While H2O shortage can cut down fruit and oil outputs due to the consequence on blossoming, fruit set, and oil accretion stages, many research workers agree in placing cavity hardening, by and large happening in summer solstice, as the less sensitive phenological phase of olive tree ( Lavee and Wodner 1991 ; Goldhamer 1999 ; Moriana et Al. 2003 ; Orgaz and Fereres, 2004 ; Iniesta et Al. 2009 ) . On the other manus, in environments characterized by good spring rainfall and deep dirt profiles, irrigation applied from the beginning of cavity indurating to early fruit veraison could command tree energies while keeping harvest output and oil quality ( G & A ; oacute ; mez-Rico et Al. 2006 ; Tognetti et Al. 2006 and 2007 ; d’Andria et al. 2009 ) .
Partial root-zone drying ( PRD ) is an irrigation scheme aimed to keep in a drying province at least half of the tree root system while the other half is kept under wet dirt conditions. Such technique is based on the being of a chemical signal between root and shoot which determines works responses to dirty drought emphasis restricting shoot and leaf growing. Particularly, under mild dirt drouth emphasis, abscisic acid ( ABA ) , traveling in the xylem from the roots, reaches the epigean parts of the tree, where it regulates stomatous motion and shoot meristem activity. The alternation of moisture and dry conditions in the dirt is a demand to let roots to bring forth ABA. Generally, a PRD rhythm lasts 10 to 15 yearss, depending on dirt type and other factors such as rainfall and temperature ( Davies et al. 2000 ; Stoll et Al. 2000 ; Stikic et Al. 2003 ; Sepaskhah and Ahmadi, 2010 ) . Wahbi et Al. ( 2005 ) reported that PRD schemes somewhat reduced output ( 15-20 % ) and increased works H2O usage efficiency of 60-70 % . Aganchich et Al. ( 2008 ) showed that PRD irrigation of ‘Picholine marocaine ‘ workss, besides H2O economy ( 50 % ) , positively affects both fruit biometric parametric quantities and oil production ( highest oil content, precocious fruit ripeness ) , and causes additions in entire polyphenol. Alternatively, Fern & A ; aacute ; ndez et Al. ( 2006 ) , comparing PRD and RDI interventions ( 50 % ETc ) , did non happen important betterment of the physiological parametric quantities measured. Such findings led the writers to rede against the usage of PRD because of its high cost and trouble in direction.
Moriana et Al. ( 2003 ) proposed an irrigation scheduling adapted to the typical surrogate bearing wont of the olive which supplies H2O merely in ‘on ‘ old ages. Although this attack was successfully tested in Pistacia vera workss ( Stevenson and Shackel 1998 ) , the writers expressed some uncertainties on the viability of such plan for olive. As a affair of fact, an exceeding terrible drouth during the rainfed ‘off ‘ twelvemonth, able to wholly deplete H2O in the dirt profile, could hold an of import impact in blossoming and fruit set of the undermentioned ‘on ‘ twelvemonth ensuing in really low outputs. On the other manus, Palese et Al. ( 2010 ) reported that after a rainfed ‘off ‘ twelvemonth olive trees continuously non-irrigated showed a great capacity of recovery, which led to a vegetive activity and productive response similar to those of the irrigated workss. This is due to a complete refilling of dirt H2O modesty following autumn-winter rains. As reported by Mart & A ; iacute ; n-Vertedor et Al. ( 2011 ) it could be advisable the application of SDI during ‘off ‘ twelvemonth when a lower H2O ingestion occurred. Therefore, the optimum irrigation sum could be determined each twelvemonth, harmonizing to harvest burden degrees.
Schemes for rainwater gaining control and storage under rainfed conditions
In traditional olive cultivation countries of Mediterranean Basin, rainfall is the lone beginning for the olive tree H2O demands being the usage of irrigation devoted to more valuable harvests. Therefore, under rainfed conditions, schemes aimed to better the recharge of rainwater in dirts by utilizing specific dirt direction techniques, or to capture rainwater in aggregation systems ( i.e. Tunisian ‘jessour ‘ , hand-made rock patios, basin at farm and hydrographic degree ) , are recommended ( Graaff de and Eppink 1999 ; Fleskens et Al. 2005 ; Tubeileh, Bruggeman and Turkelboom 2009 ) .
Among the dirt direction techniques, mechanical cultivated land is still the most common in Mediterranean olive groves, where it is performed besides as a dry agriculture technique with the purpose of cut downing dirt vaporization by disrupting H2O capillary rise and increasing dirt surface raggedness ( Ozpinar and Cay 2006 ) . Furthermore, cultivated land should better infiltration and infiltration into dirt of rainfall H2O but such effects frequently occur merely for a short period of clip instantly after the machine transition ( Pastor et al. 2000 ) . Unfortunately, uninterrupted cultivated land may ensue in the debasement of dirt construction which can significantly cut down H2O infiltration rate doing overflow, eroding procedures, and birthrate loss ( Abid and Lal 2009 ) . These debasement mechanisms are quickened by the high air temperatures, that induce an intense microbic biomass activity and the mineralization of the labile fraction of organic affair, the most active in the dirt. A important loss of organic affair leads to a farther impairment of dirt hydraulic belongingss straight involved in the recharge and storage of rainfall into the dirt ( Lipecki and BerbeA‡ 1997 ; Strudley, Green and Ascough II 2008 ) .
Autumn-winter screen harvests, self-generated or seeded, can stand for an option to tillage in rainfed olive groves demoing a good consequence in stoping raindrops, cut downing overflow, easing and rushing infiltration of extra surface H2O into the deepest dirt beds even thanks to the channels left by their heavy decease root web ( Pastor et al. 2000 ; Pardini et Al. 2002 ; Hern & A ; aacute ; ndez, Lacasta and Pastor 2005 ; Dur & A ; aacute ; n-Zuazo et Al. 2009 ; Palese et Al. 2009a ) . A survey carried out by agencies of a non-invasive geophysical techniques ( electrical electric resistance imagination, ERI ) revealed that a screen cropped mature olive grove was more efficient to stop and hive away rainwater than tilled grove, ensuing in a important H2O modesty at the deepest dirt beds ( & A ; gt ; 1.0 m ) , convenient for the root system of rainfed olive trees in the dry months ( Celano et al. 2011 ) . On the other manus, screen harvests show really high hydric ingestions from the dirt ( from 200 up to 350 millimeters per twelvemonth ) and so they could vie with olive trees for H2O, particularly when one-year rainfall is less than 500 millimeter ( Bellini 1983 ; Pardini et Al. 2002 ) . Therefore, it is cardinal to take the most opportune day of the month for screen harvests suppression ( by mechanical or chemical agencies ) , avoiding the overlapping between weed growing and some critical stages for the olive productive public presentation such as blossoming and fruit set ( Orgaz and Fereres 2004 ) .
The betterment of dirt H2O keeping capacity can be reached besides by agencies of techniques aimed to increase and/or continue dirt C content. Pruned stuff represents an of import beginning of dry affair internal to the olive grove and characterised by high content of lignin, low N degree ( C/N & A ; gt ; 25 ) , and slow decomposition procedure ( Celano, Palese and Xiloyannis 2003 ) . Once cut and buried in the dirt, sniping stuff is able, in the long period, to construct up dirt organic affair which, in bend, better dirt hydraulic characteristics ( Pastor et al. 2000 ; Hern & A ; aacute ; ndez, Lacasta and Pastor 2005 ) . The recycle of polygenic organic stuff inside the olive grove ( self-generated screen harvests + pruned stuff ) , offering assorted organic substrates, strongly affects the activity of dirt microbial communities which show a higher complexness and diverseness at familial, functional, and metabolic degrees ( Sofo et al. 2010b ) .
Use of non-conventional H2O beginnings for irrigation
Olive trees are widely diffused in waterless and semi-arid environments where H2O deficit and competition among the different H2O ingestion sectors are relevant jobs. For this ground, the usage of low quality H2O for irrigation ( e.g. , saline H2O or municipal effluent ) could stand for a realistic manner to get the better of the scarceness of ‘conventional ‘ H2O delegating it particularly for human ingestion. In add-on, an addition of the irrigated olive-grown country could take to improved husbandmans ‘ income, with a general benefit to the local rural economic system.
In the Mediterranean parts, big sums of saline H2O ( with an electrical conduction, EC & A ; gt ; 2.0 dS Garand rifle ) are available for irrigation. Among Mediterranean fruit tree species, olive tree is reasonably salt tolerant ( Ayers and Westcot 1976 ; FAO 1985 ; Rugini and Fedeli 1990 ) , and it shows a different tolerance behavior depending on cultivars, salt concentration ( EC from 5.0 to 13.7 darmstadtiums m-1, the latter identified as the tolerance bound ) and salt type dissolved in the irrigation H2O ( Rugini and Fedeli 1990 ; Chartzoulakis 2005 ) . Salt tolerance in olive cultivars is fundamentally related to salt-exclusion mechanisms happening within roots, that prevent salt translocation instead than salt soaking up by maintaining Na+ and Cl- at root degree and limit the accretion of such ions into actively turning shoots. Furthermore, Ca2+ has a chief function in modulating the selectivity of the ionic soaking up, diminishing Na+ consumption and its conveyance to the shoot, and cut downing toxic effects of Na+ on unity of the plasmatic membrane in root cells ( Benlloch et al. 1991 ; Tattini et Al. 1995 ; Melgar et Al. 2009 ) . As a affair of fact, the addition of Ca/Na ratio by adding Ca2+ to irrigation H2O has been recommended to extenuate the damaging effects of salt emphasis ( Rinaldelli and Mancuso 1996 ; Melgar et Al. 2009 ) . The rectification of H2O irrigation, together with the usage of trickle irrigation and the pick of a tolerant cultivar, can be utile tools for an appropriate employment of saline H2O. As reported by Melgar et Al. ( 2009 ) , the long-run irrigation of mature olive trees of curriculum vitae. ‘Picual ‘ , a salt tolerant cultivar, with saline H2O ( EC up to 10.0 darmstadtiums m-1 ) did non impact growing and output, and no salt accretion was found in the upper 30 centimeter dirt bed thanks to the ion leaching linked to the rain season ( one-year precipitation of 702 millimeter ) . On the other manus, irrigation with saline H2O could be harmful in low rainfall countries ( less than 250 millimeter ) . Under such conditions, it is indispensable to be after a proper dirt leaching direction ( Wiesman, Itzhak and Ben Dom 2004 ) .
Another alternate H2O resource is reclaimed urban effluent. Olive trees can impart themselves to irrigation with this low quality H2O because their fruits are normally harvested one month, or more, after the last H2O application ( harmonizing to the assortment and its ripening clip ) , and they are eaten after treating ( to obtain oil or tabular array olives ) . Such conditions decrease hazard of fruit microbic taint. Furthermore, the usage of microirrigation system avoids the contact among effluent, fruits, and leaves leting the production of safe high-value olive outputs and avoiding wellness hazard for the farm workers and the consumers ( Palese et Al. 2006 ; Bedbabis et Al. 2009 ; Palese et Al. 2009b ) . A sustainable grove direction ( Figure 2 ) coupled to an intense H2O soaking up by the roots of olive trees and screen harvests active in the wetted dirt volume, excluded H2O logging by overflow and infiltration to deeper dirt beds avoiding aquifer pollution by fecal bacteriums ( Palese et Al. 2009b ) . From an agronomic point of position, effluent is rich of mineral elements ( peculiarly P, N and K ) and organic affair, both of import for output and vegetive development of olive trees and dirt birthrate, and frequently eliminated during the sewerage intervention ( Ramirez-Fuentes et Al. 2002 ; Yadav et Al. 2002 ; Tarchouna et Al. 2010a ) . The decrease of the intervention degree decreases fertilisation costs and pollution and the monetary value of the treated H2O leting, in economic footings, its sustainable reuse ( Lopez et al. 2006 ; Palese et Al. 2009b ) . Foods supplied by effluent should be taken into history in fixing the one-year fertilisation program ( Palese, Celano and Xiloyannis 2008 ) . On the other manus, reclaimed urban effluent can be an of import beginning of both salts and potentially toxic metals. Although urban effluent normally shows a low concentration of heavy metals, long-run irrigation can increase their concentration into dirts even if at non critical values ( Ramirez-Fuentes et al. 2002 ; Yadav et Al. 2002 ; Tarchouna et Al. 2010b ; Klay et Al. 2010 ) . Therefore, a systematic monitoring of metal content in effluent, dirt, and works is recommended to avoid risky state of affairss for populations and environment.