Academic Performance8 Self-Esteem8 Dyslexia in Adolescence8 Social Interactions8 Academic Performance8 Identity Formation8 Dyslexia in Adulthood8 Relationships8 Occupational Vocational Development8 Work9 Summary and Conclusions10 References10 The Impact of Dyslexia on Normative Development Dyslexia is an invisible disability that is experienced by each person in a different way. This paper is an examination of the definitions, etiology, and prevalence of dyslexia today and its developmental impact on children, adolescents, and adults.
Osmond (1993) found that dyslexia has a unique emotional impact on each person. He interviewed 12 people, ages 6 to 15, about their experiences with this disorder, and discovered each had an increasingly difficult time describing specific characteristics. One interviewee told Osmond, “Sometimes I feel like giving my brain a good wash” (p. 21) and another stated, “I read like my mouth doesn’t belong to my brain” (p. 22). A third replied, “There’s something in my brain that won’t click open,” and a fourth, “My brain is back to front, really”
After highlighting major features of dyslexia, I am going to identify specific developmental domains of individuals in early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood that may be impacted. The Phenomenology of Dyslexia Dyslexia is difficult to describe. Although a specific diagnostic label for decades, the exact definition, etiology, and prevalence remain unclear. The following is a sketch at best. Definitions of Dyslexia Dyslexia is a condition that is manifested in a person having trouble with words. People who have dyslexia are affected educationally, emotionally, and socially.
They may have difficulty learning to read, write, spell, and comprehend what they read or hear. Dyslexia involves difficulty with phonological processing (i. e. , understanding the individually distinct sound units of language). Dyslexia is defined as having difficulty “managing and memorizing sequences of the speech sounds whose relationship to print forms the basis of learning to read” (Osmond, 1993, p. 8). Moragne (1997) said that people with dyslexia “have a lack of awareness of phonemes which are the smallest units of language, for example the c in cat is a phoneme” (p. 19). Include current definitions and sources. Etiology of Dyslexia
There are three current theories about the etiology of dyslexia. The areas of focus are brain structure, brain function, and genetics. Brain structure. The first hypothesis about etiology is that brain structure itself is atypical (source, date). Those differences may be in the left cortex alone, in the respective sizes of the left and right hemispheres, or in the cerebellum. Anomalies in the left cerebral cortex. In the 1970s, Dr. Albert M. Galabruda confirmed Dr. Samuel Orton’s original 1950s theory and phrased it as follows: The localized section of the brain that directs all aspects of reading skills is different in dyslexics.
The anomaly or altered development exists in the formation of the cortex on the left side of the brain and is considered a significant cause of dyslexia. (Nosek, 1995, p. 6) In recent years with advances in medical technology, scientists have discovered how brains are different in persons with dyslexia. Lead in to next section. Size differences in the cerebral hemispheres. Osmond (1993) observed that in people with dyslexia, “language areas of two sides of the brain are equally split” (p. 21) rather than being larger in the left hemisphere, and smaller on the right. Cerebellar dysfunction.