On the other hand, although almost all the expatriates under our study felt that cross-cultural training is very signi? cant, the data showed that fewer people received cross-cultural training before expatriation. Moreover, the adjustment would relatively satisfy among almost the expatriates. Therefore, it could infer that maybe the need to provide cross-cultural training in such a state-owned ? rm is not explicit and direct. Other evidence showed in the model implies that cross-cultural training did not have a direct effect on expatriate adjustment and career success (H3a and H3b).

Yet, psychological contract, family package, having a free choice, and protean career were of profound relevance to performance, career success, and job satisfaction. Gender differences existed, but these should not be considered major. Females felt lower level of ? t in terms of preparation, and in terms of performance, but not relating to other variables. Bearing in mind the cultural difference between China and western countries, and as the model infer indirect impact, providing cross-cultural training prior to expatriation may nevertheless be of importance and relevance, at least to improve the feeling of the expatriates.