In this study, it was found that gender; age, education and religion have significant relationships to the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. Practical implications – Increased television advertisements viewing would lead to unrealistic values being developed by the youth, and thus indirectly increase consumption and purchase products and services they do not even need. Therefore, this study shows whether youths nowadays acknowledge TV ads or they tend to avoid TV ads.
Originality/value – This study is important as it allows readers to know how youth consumes media, how it can possibly influence their daily lives, and is important in the process of understanding the key role of media in recent lifestyles. Keywords – Advertising, Cultivation Theory, Media Dependency TheoryPaper type – Research paperAbout the author: xxxx is currently in her second year pursuing Bachelor in International Business (Hons) with INTI International University, Malaysia. The author cab be reached by email (@gmail. om)Reflects the main story of the paper § Explains the findings and main conclusions § No citations, tables, graphs, equations| 1. 1 IntroductionWhere do you want to publish? Who publishes in this journal or conference series? What topics are published there? Who is in the program committee or editorial board?
A good topic, when well studied, improves descriptions in a field, better explains how theories operate in the discipline, and shows how this knowledge can be applied to benefit clients and society as a whole. The research problem to be addressed and the statement of purpose of the study focus research activities and limit the scope of the study. The statement of purpose is the most important sentence in a research proposal because this statement reflects on a compelling problem with the research topic (Conrad, 2005, p. 335).
The purpose of research is to improve the quality of life (Sellitz, 1998). In this context, we can define purpose as the reason for conducting the research in the first place, what the researcher wants to accomplish. This study seeks mainly to identify the impact of cultural attitudes on the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. It contributes to the very limited literature in the field of cultural attitudes on the impact of cross cultural management among the private Higher Education in Malaysia. § You work on a set of research topics
sion is not a summary. Sum up what you have found, not what you have done. References: Citing papers that are not in English is futileAbstract: Write the abstract last Introduction: Use the intro to describe the field Conclusion: A conclusion is not a summary. Sum up what you have found, not what you have done. References: Citing papers that are not in English is futileGeneral Do‘s and Don‘tsAbsolute statements: Always relate to units Highlighting: no exclamation mark, use italic Abbreviations: Do not introduce new abbreviations| Reference| | | | 1. 7. 2 Media Dependency Theory| Marks/Comments|
According to Rider and Sigelman (2011), Albert Bandura, a leader in the development of this theory, says that human beings, whose active information processing plays a significant role in learning, are cognitive beings (p. 45). The most important key concept in the social cognitive theory is observational learning. Observational learning simply means learning through the observation of others, who are called models (Miller, 2005, p. 252). The term “model” or “modeling” is “the direct, mechanical reproduction of behavior” (Baran and Davis, 2000, p. 184). It is argued that there are both internal as well as external determinants to why a person behaves in a certain way, but it is not determined solely by either one or by combining the two (Burger, 2011, p. 346). A concept called reciprocal determinism was introduced by Bandura.
Reciprocal determinism means that both external determinants (rewards and punishments) and internal determinants (thoughts, beliefs) are a part of a system where influences interact and affect the behavior and other parts of the system (Burger, 2011, p. 346). The diagram below shows the reciprocal determinism. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism ModelAdapted from Burger J. M. (2011). Introduction to Personality. (8th ed. ). UK: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. In the reciprocal determinism diagram, the three variables are indicated to influence one another, and how it can influence depends on the strength of each of the variables (Burger, 2011, p. 346). Another important aspect of the social cognitive theory is the self-efficacy.
Self efficacy is described as the importance of an individual observer’s ability to perform a specific behavior and the confidence level that he or she has in carrying it out, which is seen as a very important prerequisite to a change in behavior (Miller, 2005, p. 253). In other words, sell efficacy is simply the perceptions of the self that an individual holds about his or her capabilities (Jarvela, 2011, p. 205). Self efficacy can be found from four sources, which are (1) Interpreted results from previous experiences, (2) observing others doing tasks, (3) negative and positive social persuasions received from others, and (4) physiological and emotional states (Jarvela, 2011, pp. 206-207). All the four sources help the individual to learn about his or her own capabilities at a task, and determine the confidence.