The Effects of Bullying in School for Students
Violence in the education which happens frequently is the fact. In Jakarta, students’ brawl almost happens every week, so that it is no longer interesting for those journalists. So far, when talking about the violence in students’ life, the topic that often presents is about students’ brawl, whereas there is the other kind of violence in students’ life that has more dangerous effects. It is bullying. Bullying often occurs in students’ society at both the high school and elementary school. Bullying is one type of violence that occurs among students with a wide variety of forms, both in the form of physical violence or mental violence.
“Bullying is a type of aggressive behavior. ” (Andershed, Kerr, & Stattin, 2001; Cowie, 2000; Leary, Kowalski, Smith, & Philips, 2003; Roland & Idsoe, 2001; Salmivalli & Nieminen, 2002). ”. “Bullying has two key components: repeated harmful acts and an imbalance of power. It involves repeated physical, verbal, or psychological attacks or intimidation directed against a victim who cannot properly defend him- or herself because of size or strength, or because the victim is outnumbered or less psychologically resilient.
Bullying includes assault, tripping, intimidation, rumor-spreading and isolation, demands for money, destruction of property, theft of valued possessions, destruction of another’s work, and name-calling. (Sampson, Rana, 2003). ” “Persecution case which done by “Nero” group to the students in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, included in bullying category. (el-tarbawi. No. I. Vol. IV. 2011). ” It also happens in many schools in Indonesia. Bullying that we often focus on is just a small set of many cases of “bullying” that is rarely recognized by people, even teachers who are parents for students in school.
Though small things such as ridicule or mocked-forming gangs in schools based on the economic level, for example, can also be categorized as “bullying”, so “bullying” is not just a form of “attack” of a group of gang against an individual, but also things that cause students to feel isolated even be categorized as “bullying”. “There are several types of bullying: Verbal bullying includes name calling, taunting, cruel criticism, abusivephone calls and extortion of lunch money, among other things. It is the most common form of bullying. It is also the easiest form. It is common among junior and senior high school students and is easy to do.
All it takes is saying something harmful or violent to someone. Physical bullying includes kicking, pushing, punching, slapping, hitting and other forms of physical contact. Physical bullies use their power to hurt others. This type of bullying is the most dangerous type of bullying because it can hurt the victim physically. Relational bullying includes ignoring, isolating, excluding and spreading rumors, among other things, about a person. ” . Therefore, every teacher should have this understanding so as to overcome or prevent the occurrence of “bullying” among students which can cause a variety of effects.
Moreover, in 2013 curriculum, teachers are expected to participate in emphasising the behavior of the students. It means the role of the teacher is very necessary to create good behavior in students. This is especially relevant when teachers have the skills to understand the environment of students who also took part in addressing issues such as “bullying”. The teacher should be aware of it because there will be the effects of bullying for students. The effects of bullying at schools for students will be found on their behaviors at school, home, and their environment.
“Bullying” which happens among students is caused by various factors. There are internal factors and also external factors. For the internal factors, we can see from two different factors. They are biological factors and psychological factors. “Biological factors reflect the developing nervous system in childhood and adolescence, and the impact of neurobiological development on issues of impulsivity, the inability to foresee consequences, the difficulty understanding others’ perspectives and controlling behaviors and emotions.
The most relevant area is the developing relationship between the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions. The frontal lobes in general, and the prefrontal cortex in particular, are responsible for many of the skills mentioned above (and many others), typically referred to in aggregate as “executive functioning. ” These issues alone shed much light on the type, frequency, and severity of bullying among children, adolescents, and even many adults. The second is psychological factors.
Psychological factors encompass subconscious issues of safety and security, which are not only key aspects of the impact of bullying on victims, but also (paradoxically) motivate bullying behavior. This occurs when “normal” psychological needs and goals are achieved at another’s expense. Seeking attention and the formation of a personal identity or self-concept can also go astray and lead to hurting others. The psychosocial need for inclusion (and the sense of safety that drives it) is also a major motivating factor. ”) For eksternal factors, we can see from sociological, anthropological, and technological factors.
The first is about sociological factors. Many of the building blocks of bullying grow out of social and cultural factors, such as the systemic (institutional) or situational (contextual) factors that shape and determine youth culture, as well as the nature of peer relationships that both define and reflect that culture. Important sociological factors include cultural norms, beliefs and biases that determine whether or not certain behaviors are valued and which behaviors will increase or decrease the likelihood of peer approval and peer acceptance.
The role of peer modeling and the media exert their influence here. After talking about sociological factors, now we try to see from anthropological factors. Anthropological factors include the important influence of evolution and the role it has played in our development as a species. The emerging field of evolutionary psychology has shed light on the origins (and importance) of status, jealousy, competition, power and control, establishing and maintaining a social hierarchy, and the benefits and drawbacks of retaliation and revenge.
These anthropologically based factors explain much of the motivation for—and consequences of—harassment, intimidation and bullying. Evolutionary factors help explain why boys and girls (on aggregate) use different behaviors to harass each other, and why certain words and put-downs can have more impact when used towards either a boy or a girl. The last is about technological factors. A recent but important component of bullying is the influence of technology and the role of on-line communication, particularly in terms of its impact on empathy, impulsivity, and false security.
Whether it is from internal and external factors, “bullying” certainly affects the behavior of students. Both victims and perpetrators of “bullying”, will feel the effects of this. The effects of “bullying” can be found in schools, homes, and their environment. School is a place where students from different backgrounds brought together, especially social background and economic background. It will cause the gap between students from different backgrounds if they act based on their each backgrounds in the school. School should really brings students together from different social and economic backgrounds.
It is because the school is a place as an agency of socialization. The importance of the school as an agency of socialization can be divided into three subtopics: the school and society, the classroom, and the teacher. When children come to school it is usually the first time that they come under the supervision of people who are not their relatives. It is likely that the school is the first agency that encourages children to develop loyalties and sentiments that go beyond the family and link them to a wider social order.
The school as an agency of socialization should be recognized as the first organizer of social relationships (Elkin & Handel, 1978). The classroom is often seen as a place where the child is easily faced with socializing amongst peers. Since most of the things that children do in the classroom are done in the presence of their peers, they have to learn how to deal with a more formalized group situation. Parental expectations and perceptions of their children’s development of both cognitive and motor skills serve to affect the transition to the school environment (Coates & Wagenaar, 1999).
Teachers should be able to realize the school’s role as a vehicle itself, which creates a good social atmosphere which of course will make students respect each other. It of course relates to the role of the teacher as an educator. Teachers should be able to realize the school’s role as as an agency of good socialization, so that students can be respect each other. The fact of this situation is different. School becomes a place of “competition” among students. The school also becomes a place that causes many problems for students. “Bullying” is one major problem that often occurs among students.
“Bullying” that often occurs in schools is also is caused by different backgrounds of students. It caused so many effects for students. The results of the study conducted the National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center Sanders (2003; Anesty, 2009) says that bullying can make teens feel anxious and frightened, affect learning concentration in schools and lead them to avoid school. If the bullying continues in the long term, it can affects students’ self-esteem, increases social isolation, raises withdrawn behavior, making adolescents vulnerable to stress and depression, and insecurity.
In more extreme cases, bullying can lead teenagers do reckless, even kill or commit suicide. One of cases that shows the effect of “bullying” is the case of a student in Bekasi. “Vivi Kusrini desperate to end her life by hanging himself wearing a rope in the bathroom of his house on Friday (15/7) evening. The incident shocked the villagers of Cikiwul, Bantar Gebang, Bekasi, West Java, where Vivi live. Her body was found by his mother, Fitri. The people tried to help her, but failed. Vivi is one of students in Junior High School number 10 Bantar Gebang, but they were failed.
According to Joko Kirsang, Vivi’s father, his daughter had complained that her schoolmates often deride her because her father is a porridge seller” . From this cases, we can say that “bullying” which is found in school give the effect to the victim of “bullying”. In addition, another case which occured in Kebumen also proves that “bullying” is a behavior that triggered the criminal cases. A teenager from Temanggal, Adimulyo, Kebumen, killed his friend. It is because her friend often deride her. This 14-years-old teenager killed Windi Astuti (14) on Menganti beach, Kebumen.
” . Obviously it does not only affect the victims, but also the perpetrators. From these two cases we can understand that “bullying” is not a small problem. This behavior is a very serious problem that requires attention from various parties. Especially for teachers as educators who directly interact with the students in the school. The effects of “bullying” are not only found in schools, but also at home. In contrast to the effects found in the schools, the effects which were found at home are more varied depending on the condition of the student and family background.
Students who act as agents/ perpetrators of “bullying” in schools could do the violence to his family members who are weaker than them. They could do “bullying” to the family members. This certainly can not be considered as trivial thing. For the victims of “bullying”, the effects could occur in the form of “rebellion”. Students who are victims may actually be a rude person because their friends always do bad things to them such as ignoring, isolating, excluding and spreading rumors, etc, or it is because they always get pressure from their friends at school.
On the other hand, students can also be a moody person who cannot socialize with parents or even just bothersome. Many students from low economic backgrounds blame their parents because of the bad treatment from their friends. They instead force themselves to be accepted in the school by his friends by imitating the lifestyle of his friends. Of course in this case the parents are overwhelmed because they have to fulfill the desires of their children. ”Being bullied can cause emotional or behavioural changes that may lead to problems at home.
However, increased awareness of the most common signs and symptoms can help reduce the difficulties experienced by families who are affected by bullying. Secrecy: People who are bullied often become secretive at home. This can be particularly difficult for parents to experience, as they may imagine a range of frightening causes for changes in their child. The home environment can become tense, with some parents displaying frustration and suspicion in an authoritarian manner that may make the child even less likely to talk about being bullied.
Irritability: Whether bullying occurs at school or in the workplace, the unnaturally stressful environment that results can make the victim more argumentative at home. In addition, being regularly criticized and disparaged by bullies may lead to the victim overreacting to innocent comments made by family members at home. Withdrawal: As a result of bullying, some victims may isolate themselves, diminishing the quality of family relationships. Other family members may feel less supported or connected in response to this reduced level of interaction. Over time, this can lead to a decrease in overall closeness in the family.
Lying: Targets of bullying may sometimes feel ashamed, worrying that it is their fault or that it is indicative of critical personal flaws. Whether for this reason, or because they fear that reporting the bully will make things worse, a child may start to lie to their parents about why they want to skip school. Feigned illnesses and other excuses can leave parents deeply worried about their child’s physical and mental well-being. Self-doubt: Sometimes, family members do not take a report of bullying seriously. It may be dismissed as a normal part of growing up, or a consequence of office politics.
However, this failure to empathize with the victim’s emotional anguish can make them doubt their own perception of reality. This problem is particularly common in children, who may believe their parents are all-powerful. Lack of trust: If family members disbelieve reports of bullying, the victim may feel painfully alienated. The resulting lack of trust can create a serious rift in the family that may remain long after the bullying itself has been resolved. Although this type of issue can arise as a result of workplace bullying as well, it is more common in cases of school bullying.
Anxiety: When someone lives in fear of bullying, their pervasive feelings of tension can lead to social anxiety in settings they used to enjoy, including family outings. Low self-esteem: Being repeatedly treated in a cruel and degrading manner will influence the way a person sees themselves, which may then affect their dynamics with loved ones. Targets of bullying may feel less confident about objecting to any unfair treatment at home, and bullied adults may start to doubt their capacities when it comes to performing normal tasks in support of their partner or children.
Overprotectiveness: When serious bullying becomes apparent, some parents will fear for their child’s safety so excessively that their parenting style becomes oppressive and limiting. ” The Environment of students is also a place that we can find the effects of “bullying” in schools. The environment here can be interpreted as public areas. Professor Dieter Wolke says “Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood.
A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account.
Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people’s lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs. ” In conclusion, “bullying” is a big problem that should be handled. It is because “bullying” at school affects the student’s behavior. From many cases that mentioned before, we can see how “bullying” affects the students’ behavior at school, home, and their environment. We have to consider that it comes from school. As we know that the school is supposed to protect students from violence in any form.
School is also the place to develop students’ intelligent, morals and characters. The role of the teacher is needed. Especially in applying Curriculum 2013. Curriculum 2013 is more emphasis on students’ behavior. One of the reasons that this Curriculum needs to be applied is because of the poor moral decline that can be seen from many cases of “bullying”. The victims and the perpetrators of “bullying” must be addressed, because it causes negative effects on the environment and social. “Bullying” can be spread if it is not be prevented, and it will give effects on the increasing number of victims of “bullying”.
Therefore, teachers have to consider about this big problem because they have important role to handle it. They need to know and understand what “bullying” is, how to cope it, and how to prevent it. The teachers as the educators should understand the students well. They have to understand about the students’ life and how they socialize, especially at school. In curriculum 2013, which focus on students’ behaviour teacher needs to work hard in developing students’ behaviour. The atmosphere of the school must be changed if it is needed.
If there is gap between students who comes from different background, teachers need to create the equal condition in the school. Involving students in the school activity which focus on the unity is one of the solution that teachers can do. In this activity, they will learn how to respect each other, and they will be more understand about their friends condition. Besides that, creating the rule in school by considering of students’ condition is also good. Teachers may create it in order to develop students’ behavior, especially to make them respect each other. It is not only just as general rules that always created in every school.
The teachers need to be creative because in creating the rule, the teachers have to consider that students’ do not like the rule. They will break the rules. It will be different when the teachers make it as an interesting rule. For example: every student in the class has to know the condition of their classmates. All of them have to know why their classmates do not come. That is one of example to make them care to others. There are many things that teacher can do in order to handle this problem. If all of teacher work together to handle it, it will be easy for them to solve this big problem.