The Daily Food Intake Biology Essay

Vegetable comprises about 15 of the day-to-day nutrient consumption of the Mauritanian population. Consumers by and large demand for better quality veggies. Quality vegetable to them means healthy, lush and fresh looking veggies with no seeable roseolas or holes caused by plagues or diseases. To fulfill this demand husbandmans have to undertake plague and disease jobs by all agencies. The usage of fertilisers and pesticides has been found to be the immediate and cheaper manner to bring forth quality veggies and increased farm productiveness. This pattern has unluckily created legion jobs associated with pesticide maltreatment such as inadvertent toxic condition to adult male and toxic residues that are risky to wellness in the environment.

In 2006 and 2007, the universe used about 5.2 billion lbs of pesticides, with weedkillers representing the biggest portion of the universe pesticide usage at 40 % , followed by insect powders ( 17 % ) and antifungals ( 10 % ) . Presently, there are more than 1,055 active ingredients registered as pesticides, which are put together to bring forth over 20,000 pesticide merchandises that are being marketed in the United States.

The universe ‘s weedkiller industry is forecast to enter near to 5 % annually growing between 2011 and 2016 to transcend 1,350 kilo dozenss. The market is forecast to enter near to 6 % annual growing in gross bring forthing close to $ 25,000 million by 2016. This growing will non be across the board, with India and a few other states entering lower growing. This is mostly due to the fact that the state ‘s most-commonly used pesticides are insect powders, which represent 40 % of the overall market. The universe insect powder market is expected to make about 535 kilo dozenss by 2016, entering in surplus of 4 % annual growing for the five preceding old ages.

Harmonizing to WHO estimates, one million instances of pesticide poisoning occur every twelvemonth and accordingly there are 20,000 deceases globally ( Nasir, 1999 ) . The being of high concentration of pesticide residues in nutrient concatenation, together with cognition of some of their inauspicious effects, has alerted the populace to the demand for ordinance. There are MRLs ( Maximum Residue Levels ) that need to be respected by the plantation owners. These MRLs have been set by international wellness organisation such as EFSA ( European Food Safety Authority ) to guarantee nutrient safety.

Although there are human benefits in footings of increasing productiveness to a greater extent, the usage of pesticides, some besides have drawbacks, such as possible toxicity to worlds and other animate beings. Harmonizing to theA Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most unsafe and persistentA organic chemicalsA are pesticides.


PesticidesA are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destructing, driving or extenuating anyA plague to protect harvest. They by and large protect workss from damaging influences such as weeds, diseases or insects. A pesticide is by and large aA chemicalA or biological agent ( such as aA virus, A bacteria, A antimicrobialA orA germicide ) that through its consequence deters, incapacitates, putting to deaths or otherwise discourages plagues.

There are 2 chief type of pesticides:

Contact pesticidesA by and large command a plague as a consequence of direct contact. Insects are killed when sprayed straight. Weed leaf is killed when adequate surface country is covered with a contact weedkiller.

Systemic pesticidesA are pesticides which are absorbed by workss or animate beings and travel to untreated tissues. Systemic weedkillers move within the works to untreated countries of foliages, stems or roots.

They are chiefly used in combination, i.e. several types of pesticide, antifungal and insect powder are usage in vegetable cultivation. Although most veggies are washed before gross revenues, it is wrong to presume that all the pesticides have been removed.

There are 4 common of pesticide:

Organophosphate PesticidesA –

These pesticides affect the nervous system by interrupting the enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Most organophosphates are insect powders. They were developed during the early nineteenth century, but their effects on insects, which are similar to their effects on worlds, were discovered in 1932. Some are really toxicant ( they were used in World War II as nervus agents ) . However, they normally are non relentless in the environment.

Carbamate PesticidesA

These affects the nervous system by interrupting an enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. The enzyme effects are normally reversible. There are several subgroups within the carbamates.

Organochlorine Insecticides

A They were normally used in the past, but many have been removed from the market due to their wellness and environmental effects and their continuity ( e.g. DDT and chlordane ) .

Pyrethroid Pesticides

TheyA were developed as a man-made version of the of course happening pesticide pyrethrin, which is found in chrysanthemums. They have been modified to increase their stableness in the environment. Some man-made pyrethroids are toxic to the nervous system


The toxicity of any compound is related to the dosage. A extremely toxic substance causes terrible symptoms of poisoning with little doses. A substance with a low toxicity by and large requires big doses to bring forth mild symptoms. Even common substances like java or salt become toxicants if big sums are consumed.

Toxicity can be either acute or chronic.

Acute toxicityA is the ability of a substance to do harmful effects which develop quickly following soaking up, i.e. a few hours or a day.A

Chronic toxicityA is the ability of a substance to do inauspicious wellness effects ensuing from long-run exposure to a substance.

There is a great scope in the toxicity of pesticides to worlds. The relativeA hazardA of a pesticide is dependent upon the toxicity of the pesticide, the dosage received and the length of clip exposed.A

A jeopardy can be defined as a beginning of danger. The jeopardy in utilizing a pesticide is related to the likeliness of exposure to harmful sums of the pesticide. Exposure can be influenced by the sum of pesticide used, concentration of the pesticide and how the pesticide and application equipment are handled. A pesticide can be extremely toxic as a dressed ore, but pose small jeopardy to the user if:

used in a really dilute preparation,

used in a preparation non readily absorbed through the tegument or inhaled,

used merely under conditions of no human exposure, or

Used by experient appliers who are equipped to manage the pesticide safely.

In contrast, a pesticide may hold a comparatively low toxicity but present a jeopardy because it is used in the concentrated signifier which may be readily absorbed or inhaled.

Pesticide Toxicity

The toxicity of a pesticide can be measured several ways, but by and large human toxicity is estimated based on trial consequences on rats and other animate beings. Toxicity surveies are merely guidelines. A pesticide that is toxicant to rats is non needfully every bit toxicant to people or other animate beings. Some pesticides are unsafe after one big dosage ( acute toxicity ) . Others can be unsafe after little, perennial doses ( chronic toxicity ) .

Measuring Chronic Toxicity

Chronic toxicity refers to the effects of long-run or repeated lower degree exposures to a toxic substance, such as when a pesticide applier is often wetted with spray during insecure spray patterns. The effects of chronic exposure do non look instantly after first exposure and may take old ages to bring forth symptoms. Pesticides which have a inclination to roll up, or which break down easy in organic structure tissues, normally represent the greatest chronic exposure jeopardy. Person who is often exposed to low doses of such pesticides may develop symptoms of poisoning long after the first exposure. Chronic exposure may include chronic unwritten, chronic dermal or chronic inspiration toxic condition.

The symptoms of chronic toxicity develop easy and prevail for a long clip after exposure. Such symptoms may happen in three ways:

As a complication of acute toxic condition. For illustration, a terrible exposure to a pesticide may do acute effects such as sickness, thorax hurting and emesis every bit good as chronic effects ensuing from kidney, liver and lung harm.

As a easy progressive status, without any incident of acute toxic condition. For illustration, increased take a breathing trouble or skin sensitisation ( allergic reaction ) after repeated usage of a pesticide.

As the happening of a disease or status initiated by old exposure. For illustration, the development of malignant neoplastic disease old ages after a period of exposure.

Very few pesticides now in usage are known to do chronic effects, if used harmonizing to label waies. However, a few pesticides are suspected or known to do chronic unwellness in trial animate beings or worlds when exposure degrees are high. The enrollment of some pesticides has been cancelled because the suspected or identified chronic effects represented a important wellness jeopardy.

Chronic toxicity of a pesticide is assessed otherwise from acute toxicity ( LD50 or LC50 ) A figure of different trials are performed on animate beings which help to foretell whether a pesticide will do long-run effects. Trial animate beings are exposed to sublethal degrees of pesticides for periods runing from about 90 yearss to several old ages. They are examined for a broad assortment of toxic effects from cuticular, unwritten and respiratory exposure. Such effects include:

CarcinogenicityA – ability to bring forth malignant neoplastic disease or to help carcinogenic chemicals.

MutagenicityA – ability to do familial alterations.

TeratogenicityA – ability to do birth defects.

OncogenicityA – ability to bring on tumour growing ( non needfully malignant neoplastic diseases ) .

Liver damageA – decease of liver cells, icterus ( yellowing of the tegument ) , fibrosis and cirrhosis.

Generative disordersA – such as decreased sperm count, asepsis, and abortion.

Nerve damageA – including accumulative effects on cholinesterase depression associated with organophosphate insect powders.

Allergenic sensitizationA – development of allergic reactions to pesticides or chemicals used in preparation of pesticides.

Evidence of chronic effects is normally associated with long-run exposure of trial animate beings to comparatively high doses. Therefore people who run the greatest hazard of developing any chronic effects are workers involved in the industry of chemicals or appliers exposed to high degrees of pesticides over many old ages.

Chronic toxicity symptoms may non ever be recognized as holding been caused by exposure to a toxic chemical months or old ages in the yesteryear. The degrees of exposure which might do chronic effects in a human person are really hard to foretell. Thus anyone managing pesticides should try to minimise their exposure and extinguish the possibility of chronic effects.

Measuring Acute Toxicity ( LD50A and LC50A Values )

Acute toxicity of a pesticide refers to the effects from a individual dosage or repeated exposure over a short clip ( e.g. one twenty-four hours ) , such as an accident during blending or using pesticides. A pesticide with a high ague toxicity can be lifelessly even if a little sum is absorbed. Acute exposures may be referred to as acute dermal, acute unwritten or acute inspiration poisoning. Normally the effects of ague exposure, if any, occur within 24 hours.

LD50A or Lethal Dose 50

TheA LD50A is the dosage of a pesticide that will kill half of a group of trial animate beings from a individual exposure by either the dermal, unwritten or inspiration routes.A The larger an animate being, the greater the deadly dosage required to kill it. TheA LD50A is expressed in mgs per kg of organic structure weight of the trial animal.A For illustration, if a pesticide has an oralA LD50A value of 10 mg/kg, and the trial animate beings each weigh 1 kilogram, 50 % of the animate beings would decease of poisoning if each Ate 10 milligram of the pesticide. If the trial animate beings weigh 25 kilograms each, the lethal dosage to kill 50 % of these animate beings would be 10 mg/kg X 25 kg = 250 mg each.

A pesticide with a lowerA LD50A is more toxic than a pesticide with a higher figure because it takes less of the pesticide to kill half of the trial animate beings. The smaller theA LD50A value, the more toxic the pesticide.


LC50A or Lethal Concentration 50

The LC50A value is a step of the toxicity of a pesticide when trial animate beings breathe air assorted with pesticide dust, blues or spray mist. The LC50A is the concentration of pesticide which is deadly to 50 % of a population of trial animate beings and is normally determined for a specific exposure period ( e.g. inspiration for 4 hours ) . The length of exposure is of import because shorter exposure periods by and large require higher pesticide concentrations to bring forth toxic effects. LC50A values for pesticides in air are expressed as the ratio of pesticide to air, in parts per million ( ppm ) or parts per billion ( ppb ) . LC50A values are besides determined for fish and aquatic beings based on the concentration of pesticide in H2O for exposure periods of 24 to 96 hours.

If a formulated merchandise contained 125 g/L active ingredient, a 70 kilogram individual would be badly poisoned if he consumed ( 21 g ) / ( 125 g/L ) = 0.168 L = 168 milliliter of merchandise.

If the merchandise was assorted in a spray solution of 100 mL/10L of spray, so a individual would be badly poisoned if he consumed ( 168 milliliter ) / ( 10 ml/L ) = 16.8 L of spray.

Research shows the susceptibleness of mammals to pesticides varies with the species, age, sex and wellness of the animate beings being tested. Therefore informations on the toxicity of pesticides to prove animate beings can merely function as a usher to the likely toxicity of a pesticide to an single individual. When pesticides are registered, safety factors are included to account for the differences between species and between persons.

As a general usher, the approximate dosage which would do terrible hurt or decease to an mean human grownup is illustrated in the tabular array below for assorted LD50A scopes

Relation of unwritten LD50A to come close deadly dosage in grownup worlds.

Oral LD50A of Active Ingredient ( a.i. )

Approximate lethal dose to mean size grownup

( 70 kilogram or 155 pound. )

less than 5 mg/kg

less than 0.3 milliliter

( one to two beads )

5 to 50 mg/kg

0.3 to 3 milliliters

( a few beads to half a teaspoon )

50 to 500 mg/kg

3 milliliter to 30 milliliters

( half a teaspoon to two tablespoons )

500 to 5,000 mg/kg

30 milliliter to 300 milliliters

( 1 to 10 fluid ounces )

5,000 to 15,000 mg/kg

300 milliliter to 900 milliliters

( 10 to 30 fluid ounces )

Tomato Cultivation in Mauritius

Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) is one of the assorted veggie that is chiefly consumed by Mauritian on a day-to-day footing either in chief dishes ( cooked or natural ) or as salad. Tomato demand has been on an changeless addition during the past few decennaries, ensuing in an big addition in the usage of agrochemicals including pesticides to command plague every bit good as diseases in order to increase productiveness.

Tomato is easy grown all over the island in Mauritius due to its favourable clime and its fertile volcanic dirt. These are chiefly grown in unfastened field. Three types of tomatoes are normally grown. These are

1. Cooking Tomato

2. Salad Tomato

3. Cherry Tomato

Reaping Begins about 2 months after organ transplant, at regular intervals when the tomatoes are good shaped and when they have turned from dark green to light green. These are allowed to mature in a fly-by-night and cool topographic point. When the tomato begins to maturate, it has a pink or xanthous colour, which turns to red finally.

The tomato industry is estimated at a value of around Rs 300 M with an one-year production of 14, 700 T over an country of 935 hour angle and at a market monetary value of Rs 13.00 to 105.00 / Kg. The production of salad tomato harvest is estimated to be around 2000 T annually. In 2006, the production and country harvested has peaked up every bit compared to a lower production in 2005.

The local production of tomato should be increased to some 28,000 Ts by 2015 to run into the increasing demand of the turning population and the encouragement of the tourer industry taking into history our demands for fresh ingestion every bit good as natural stuffs for processing.










Area harvested

( hour angle )














12, 840

14 671

17 500


Pesticide normally used in Tomato Cultivation

A big figure of pesticides are sprayed on tomatoes. “ Fresh ” tomatoes are for sliting and salads. Tomatos are besides grown for treating into a broad assortment of different merchandises. The pesticides used on tomatoes include insect-killers, weed-killers, works growing regulators and other types of pesticides.

Chemical Name

Brand Names

Chemical Class

Common Uses


Devrinol 2-E Selective Herbicide, Devrinol 2-EC, Devrinol 4-F



Copper Hydroxide

Badge SC, Champ Formula 2 Flowable, Kocide, NU-COP 3L, Ridomil Gold, Copper Fungicide

Inorganic Copper


Streptomycin Sulfate

Ag Streptomycim, Agri-Mycin 17, Bac Master, Firewall Fungicide/Bactericide,





Accu-Pak Ridomil Gold MZ Fungicide, Dithane, F-45 Rainshield, Gavel 75DF,

Mancozeb, Penncozeb

Dithiocarbamate, Inorganic-Zinc



Bull ‘s Eye Bioinsecticide, Spintor 2SC, SA-50 Conserve Naturalyte Insect

Control, Monterey Garden Insect Spray, Ferti-lome Spray.


Insect & A ; Mite


Avermectin B-1

Abacus Agricultural Miticide/Insecticide, Abba 0.15 EC, Agri-Mek 0.15EC

Miticide/Insecticide, Epi-Mek 0.15EC Miticide/Insecticide


Insect Killer


Alais 2F, Areca, Admire, Couraze 1.6F, Macho 2.0 FL, Majesty, Pasada 1.6 F


Insect Killer


Monitor 4 Liquid Insecticide


Insect Killer


Agri-Star Trigger, Arrow 2EC, Clethodin 2EC, Intensity Post-emergence Grass

Herbicide, Select, V-10139 1.6 EC Herbicide, Valent Prof Prod Envoy Herbicide,

Choice 2EC Herbicide, Volunteer Herbicide

Cyclohexenone derivative



Metri D F, Metribuzin, Sencor DF 75 % Dry Flowable Herbicide



Cyhalothrin Lambda

Warrior LEC, Warrior Insecticide with Zeon Technology


Insect & A ; Mite



Danitol 2.4 EC Spray,


Insect & A ; Mite



Endosulfan 3 EC, Hi-Yield Thiodan Garden Dust, Thiodan Enulsifiable

Concentrate, Phaser 50 WP Insecticide, Thionex 3EC Insecticide


Insect & A ; Mite



Actigard 50WG Plant Activator





Dipel ( writhe slayer ) WP, Dipel.86 % w.p. , Dipel 110 dust, Dipel 2X Biological

Insecticide, Dipel Bio Garden Spray, Dipel ES, Dipel WDG.


Insect slayer


Quadris, Bravo, Chloronil 500, Chlorothalonil 500 GK, Chloro Gold, Equus 720

SST, Asana XL

Substituted Benzene


Paraquat bichloride

Gramoxone Max Herbicide, Gramoxone Inteon Herbicide




Cabrio EG Fungicide, Cabrio Team Fungicide



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