The Contribution Of Psychology Criminology Essay

How truth is the memory? A research surveies which was done by Loftus and Palmer ( 1974 ) as to happen out the truth of memory. 45 Participants watched a movie of different auto accidents and after the movie the participants were asked to reply the questionnaire which asked them to depict the accident. Some of them where asked how fast were the auto traveling when they hit each other. And the other group was asked about how fast the autos were traveling when they smashed this was a deceptive inquiry. The group given the word smashed estimated a higher velocity rate compared to the other group. A hebdomad subsequently participants were brought back and asked if they had seen any broken glass. However, there was no broken grass but the group who received the inquiry with smashed were more likely to state they had surely seen some glass. Loftus research suggested that station event information does alter the manner the information is stored. However, the strengths of the research lab experiments done by Loftus and Palmer are that the experiment is able to exert a great trade of control over what happens and the experiment trial can be repeated. However, it has been criticized by Yuillie that the experiment does non stand for the existent life state of affairss.

However, Yuille and Cutshall ( 1986 ) argued with Loftus ‘s consequences for sing prima inquiries for missing cogency in the existent life state of affairss. Yuille and Cutshall ( 1986 ) did a research whereby they interviewed 13 people who had witnessed an armed robbery in Canada. The interviews were done 4 months after the offense and included two deceptive inquiries. However, despite these inquiries the informants provided right callback that matched with their elaborate studies and this suggested that post-event information may non impact memory of the oculus informant. This survey is seen as cogency because it is based on existent life events and legion informants

However, a research survey about grownups versus kids was done by Poole and Lindsay ( 2001 ) suggested that kids are more suggestible to misdirecting past event information than grownups. However, Duncan, Whitney and Kunen ( 1982 ) disagree with the findings. They found that younger kids were less susceptible to misdirecting past event information than the older.

Wrongdoer profiling is the construct of making a profile or to help designation of an unknown felon based on a offense scene. Scene grounds helps the governments with the thought as to what kind of the individual who has committed offense, his profession, personality, his environment, age, race, matrimonial position, degree of instruction and the behavior as this will give them the thought of catching the felon. Offender profiling is into two types which is which is the Top down attack and the Bottom up attack but both use different attacks.

The Top down attack is sometimes known as ”crime scene analyses ” is used in America by FBI. This attack looks at the grounds and informations on the offense scene and so compares the grounds with the old offense scenes. This attack tends to concentrate much more on felons whereby they do interviews with the convicted felons and they besides tend to fit a type of condemnable to the characteristics of a peculiar offense. This attack classifies felons in two classs which is the ‘Organized ‘ offense prepared in progress or ‘Disorganized ‘ a offense which is non planned. Research surveies shows that the Top down attack was successful on the instance of Ted Bundy a consecutive slayer who killed a figure of people. The Top down attack failed in ( 2002 ) in the instance of John Allen Muhammad who was known as ( The Washington Sniper ) ex us soldier whom the expects thought the sniper was an angry white adult male and yet the wrongdoer was black with another individual.

The Bottom up attack is used in UK and it involves working from the offense scene straight whereby any informations in the scene is collected. This attack was foremost used in UK in 1986 by David Canter and he believes that this attack is good for catching up the wrongdoers. However, this attack uses any physical grounds found at the scene such as blood samples, forensic, hair, and fingerprints and they go and look for links and forms in the information. Canter uses scientific statistical analysis of past offense scenes to analyze the offense being committed Canter used a bottom up attack to make a research survey in 1986 about a cat called John Duff, the railroad raper who committed 23 onslaughts on adult females before arrested. However, the consequences were really successful in helping the constabulary to catch the wrongdoer. Canter had to construct up an thought on how the wrongdoer was like and what he did. However a research survey was seen as a failure of offend profiling in the instance of Albert Desalvo a raper and a consecutive slayer who was known as the ‘Boston Strangler ‘ The profile suggested that he was a male homosexual school instructor populating entirely, nevertheless when he was arrested he was found to be a heterosexual building worker populating with his household. However, offender profiling may non be dependable this is because it merely works good with wrongdoers in the information base. If the wrongdoer is non in the information base the hunt is non decreased in size.

The deductions of findings in Eyewitness testimony and Offender profiling.

Loftus research suggested that eyewitness tends to be wrong and non dependable as they can acquire things incorrect because of reading but they are the most believed grounds by a jury. Harmonizing to The Innocent Project ( 2008 ) Eyewitness misidentification is chiefly the cause of unlawful strong beliefs and over 75 % strong beliefs are reversed by Deoxyribonucleic acid but the condemnable justness relies on oculus informant designation for look intoing offense. ( Wells and Olson, 2003 ) However, the research surveies believes that the people ‘s memories are non accurate, emphasis can hold a negative affect for an eyewitness to retrieve or remember events and besides weapon focal point can impact the informant from remembering every bit much information.

Wrongdoer Profiling has raised some signifier of ethical issues is the sense that the that constabulary makes an premise of guilt in the fact that happening out a suspect happens to suit the profile does non turn out that they have committed the offense. Offender profiling have been found by some other surveies that it is utile in other offenses and non utile in other offenses so the intent of psychological science in mundane life in this is regarded as non utile. Interviews with condemnable are untrusty as the felon might be manipulative.


In this assignment I have talked about how effectual the Eyewitness and the Offender profiling is in offense instances. I have looked at different type of attacks used in UK and in America and have found out that they both help in observing offense.

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