The Art of Public Speaking Ch. 15

Question of fact
a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion (e.g. “persuade my audience that an earthquake will hit California within 10 years)
Question of value
a question about the worth, rightness or morality of an idea or action (e.g. persuade my audience that capital punishment is wrong)
Question of policy
a question about whether a specific course of action should be taken (e.g. persuade my audience that madatory certification should be required by the state every 10 years)
Speeches on questions of policy
1. speech to gain passive agreement
2. speech to gain immediate action
Speech to gain passive agreement
the goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without asking the audience to take action in support
Speech to gain passive agreement: examples
1. persuade audience that there should be a stricter safety standard for amusement park rides
2. persuade audience that school districts should not allow soft-drink companies to stodk product in school vending machines.
Speech to gain immediate action
the goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
Speech to gain immediate action: examples
1. persuade audience to donate time to become literacy tutors
2. persuade audience to vote in the next presidential election
Basic issues of policy speeches
1. need
2. plan
3. practicality
Policy speech: need
is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
Policy speech: plan
if there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve it?
Policy speech: practicality
1. will the speaker’s plan solve the problem?
2. will the speaker’s plan create new and more serious problems?
organizing speeches on question of policy
1. problem-solution order
2. problem-cause-solution order
3. comparative advantage order
4. Monroe’s motivated sequence
Problem-solution order
1. main point that exposes the problem
2. main point that proposes solution
Problem-cause-solution order
1. main point that exposes the problem
2. main point that anaslyzes causes of problem
3. main point that presents a solution
Comparative advantage order
each main point explains why a speaker’s solution to a problem is preferable to other potential solutions
Monroe’s motivated sequence
a five-step sequence designed to get immediate action
Monroe’s five steps
1. get the audience’s attention
2. show the need for change
3. provide a satisfactory solution
4. intensify desire for solution by visualizing benefits
5. urge audience to take action to support solution.
persuasion
the process of creating, reinforcing,or changing people’s beliefs or actions
Ethics and persuasion
1. make sure goals are ethically sound
2. use ethical methods to persuade
Degrees of persuasion
There are 7 degrees of persuasion, 3 on each side of “neutral” (slightly, moderately, and strongly)
Mental dialogue with audience
mental give and take between the speaker and the audience during a speech
Target audience
the portion of the audience that the speaker most wants to persuade
Types of persuasive speeches
1. fact
2. value
3. policy

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