Summary: the PR history of appearance, traits and characteristics of modern perception
–PAGE_BREAK–1.2 History of development of PR in Russia.
Russia has its own history of development of PR as a science, establishing meaningful social relations. However, the emergence of Russian PR is actually a dynamic reconstruction of the world (and primarily American) of the evolutionary process. We cannot deny the fact that domestic public relations doomed to a short time to get there the way in which the USA took almost two centuries.
The history of public relations consists of less than twenty years. Most researchers agree that PR activity originated in Russia in the late 80-ies, but as an independent form of business activity kristallizuetsya in the second half of 1990 – early 1991.
In the history of Russian PR distinguish 4 main stages:
· the initial stage
· “gold” stage
· stage a real PR
· phase of “managed democracy”
However, Marina Shishkin, the President of the Russian Association on public relations, allocates another constitutionally – period (1988-1991). In the late 80-ies on the crest of economic reforms in Russian society appear for the first time, organizations focused on public relations. These include the departments of public relations and mass media of the Executive committees of the Moscow city Council and Leningrad city Council (<metricconverter productid=”1988″ w:st=”on”>1988), then these sections are formed in the bodies of state power and the management of major regional and regional centres. In the new information services is in need and young Russian business, which by that time were actively used mainly is the most simple and cost-effective communication form. On the Russian market the first domestic firms offering PR as a service.
Let us consider the main stages:
1. The initial phase (1990-1995) represents the formal emergence of PR as such that involves learning the countries of Europe and America, the mythologizing of PR and image making.
These years marked the most important in the history of the national PR events.
The first PR Agency and corporate PR services.
Is the long-awaited release of the Russian edition of the book by S. black’s “What “public relations””.
In 1990 in the USSR, MGIMO, faculty of international information first appears the Department “public relations”, where he began to study future officially employees of Western PR sample.
In 1991 in Moscow with the participation of MGIMO of the USSR Union of journalists and the foreign Ministry of the USSR was established the Russian Association on public relations (RASO).
Since its inception RASO is actively developing contacts with the international PR community. In the spring of 1992 held the first international business seminar “public Relations in market economy” with the participation of one of the founders of the European theory of public relations Sam black. In September 1992, the second Russian-American seminar “the Practice of PR”.
In 1994, the Russian Association on public relations adopted the “Declaration on professional and ethical principles in the field of public relations.
And since 1995, RASO has a programme of development and strengthening of ties with the regions. A branch of RASO in Yekaterinburg and St. Petersburg. Develop contacts with colleagues in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, and Hungary.
2. The “gold” phase (1995-1998) accompanied by the appearance regarding a real democracy in politics and the creation of pseudo in the economy. This period is associated with the emergence of large PR budgets and technologization of PR.
This stage involves the flourishing Metropolitan PR, is consolidating the agencies of political consulting as a real political players in the elections are agencies that specialize mainly on business PR, be a large number of so-called PR agencies, the “second wave”.
With the support of RASO we organized the first specialized edition in the magazine “Counselor”, which is the most authoritative magazine in the field of PR in Russia.
In 1996 during the presidential administration of the Russian Federation established the Office for public relations. The Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation begins operation, the Department of public and interregional relations, and in the administrative districts of the capital and in the Moscow mayor’s office will organize work of departments of public relations.
June 25, 1997, chamber of Commerce and industry of the Russian Federation, Union of journalists of the Russian Federation and the Russian Association on public relations has established a national award in the field of development of public relations “Silver Archer”.
In these years, a completely new view of PRкак about a very profitable activity, as a result has been the emergence of inappropriately large volumes of PR budgets.
3. Stage real PR(1998-1999) was followed by a test of crisis prevailing in the country. Having passed the test, PRинициировал the formation of the domestic market, began offering quality market services.
At this time, a growing number of specialized periodicals PR periodicals, first appears domestic literature related to PR, successfully aktiviziruyutsya PR-activities of public institutions.
The country is the rapid development of the specialization “public relations” in many Russian Universities.
Actively accelerated the development of corporate PR services.
4. The phase of “managed democracy” (<metricconverter productid=”2000″ w:st=”on”>2000):
Happening inertial development PRв regions, there are previously unavailable regional PR centres, it is very noticeable sharp increase in the number of Universities with the specialization “public relations”.
There is a slowing of the pace of development PRв business and corporate PR, due to the replacement of technologies of lobbyism and increased price competition.
There is a decline of state PRс its replacement with the technologies of propaganda, it becomes apparent crisis of political PR.
In 2001, the Russian Association on public relations adopted the “Russian Code of professional and ethical principles in the field of public relations”. October 18, he was published and came into force.
Increasing the role mediabaing (large custom-made PR, sales, media materials is emerging, based on real events), but at the same time, strengthening communication within the PR community and public certification of PR specialists.
The characteristic features of Russian PR-industry for all the stages of its development was the lack of development (in comparison with the countries leaders in the industry: America, Western Europe), the lack of clear standards in operation, unreliability, excessive bureaucracy.
Of course, all the disadvantages of modern PR activities, it is possible to substantiate and justify the poor conditions of creation of the industry itself. Forced development PRв of Russia in the extreme and not adapted to the conditions was the main reason that the Russian public relations inferior to the Western ones.
However, it is surprising that the activity, flourishing in the former Soviet Union for two decades, has still not received approval and understanding on the part of ordinary citizens. Naturally, a faulty perception of this activity adversely affects its development, because the absence of promotion generally entails complete apathy.
–PAGE_BREAK–Chapter 2. THE CONCEPT OF PR, TRAITS, PERCEPTIONS. 2.1 Basic definition of PR, and their features.
In order to understand why there are misunderstandings by society of the concept of PR, you should familiarize yourself with some of the most popular definitions.
“Publicrelations” is very rich in the number of his definitions of the concept, however, of direct relevance to this sort of activity and gives it all something individual.
When in 1975 one of the American funds (Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education) carried out a deep study of the topic, were identified 472 definitions of PR. Currently their number has increased to thousands, but all of them can be divided into four groups.
The first group includes all of the definitions that consider publicrelationsкак the science and art of dealing with certain, necessary for the organization of tasks.
First of all, this group includes the definition contained in the Mexican PR Declaration, signed by representatives of 30 national and regional PR associations 11 Aug 1978 in Mexico city. It reads:
“Practice “publicrelations” is a creative and social-scientific approach to analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling of executives, and the implementation of the planned programmes of action which will serve both the interests of the organizations, and the public interest.” 
This can be attributed to the definition of S. Blake: “Public relations” is the art and science of understanding based on high awareness”.
In addition, this is the following definitions:
Publicrelations is the art and social science, allowing to analyze trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizations and leadership to implement pre-planned programs of action which serve the interests of both organisations and the public.
PR is a specialized science and art Department of social information under conditions of non-price competition.
“PR” is an art combined with science, the main motive of which is not cash and the public interest.
The second group consists of PR as an activity of a special kind (administrative, communication, organizational), are presented in various dictionaries and encyclopedias.
Dictionary of sociology (Dictionary of Sociology), published in the USA in 1944, defines PR as “the theory and methods used to regulate the relations of the subject with his community.”
“These theories and methods involve the use of sociology, social psychology, Economics, political science, and special skills of a journalist, artist, organizer, advertising, Etc. to solve specific problems in this area of activity” 
Encyclopedic dictionary of political Science defines PR as follows:
“Publicrelations— specialized activities of the state and other organizations that establish understanding and goodwill between organizations engaged in PR, including the government, and people, social groups, which addressed this activity… Publicrelationsявляется an important part of public management and aims to provide mutual understanding between the people who make up the managing and managed subsystems, and a process of their functioning”. 
In the dictionary of new foreign words, published by Moscow state University submitted its own version. “Publicrelations— public relations — organization of public opinion for the most successful functioning of an enterprise (institution, company) and increase its reputation. The art of relationships between the state (management), public organisations and citizens in the interests of the whole community.”
Third, most numerous group consists of the definition of public relations as a specific management function or management functions. It includes the definition belonging to the most influential theorists and practitioners in this sphere, and also representatives of leading scientific and educational schools.
Opens this series the definition proposed by 65 leading scientists of the American Foundation PR (Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education):
“PR is a special management function that helps establish and maintain communication, understanding and cooperation between an organization and its public; contributes to the solution of various problems and issues; helps management to be informed about public opinion and react to it; defines and emphasizes the main task of company management to serve the public interest; helps management to be prepared for any changes and use them in the most efficient way possible, performing the role of “early warning system” about the dangers, helps to cope with adverse trends; uses research and an open, based on ethical norms of communication as the main means of activity.” 
Another classic definition made in 1948 and revised in 1987, is owned by the British Institute of public relations (IPR):
“Activities in the area PRявляются planned and undertaken efforts aimed at establishing and maintaining friendly relations between the organization and its public”. 
Also worth mentioning is the definition of belonging to Peru T. hunt and John. Grunge. They write: “Most definitions of public relations — many of them long and complicated — contain two elements: communication and management. We define PRкак managing communication between the organization and the community.” 
Scott Cutlip, the author of the work entitled “Public relations: theory and practice”, sees PR is”the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and the public, on which depends the success or failure”.
The President of the Ukrainian Association of public relations George Pocheptsov treats PRкак “the science of public opinion management” or “management communications”.
The fourth group of definitions explains PRне as a function of management, and how proper control or management (management communications). The main principle of selection of such definitions — representation of a particular interpretation of PR, different from the others.
To the definitions in this group include the following:
“PR is the art of creating favorable public relations for the firm by forming beliefs about what the firm produces and sells goods in the interests of buyers, not sellers”.
“PR is a communication activity aimed at creating and maintaining harmonious and friendly relations between the institution and the public through targeted, timely, truthful and sufficient information”. 
“Public relations is the art of the application of the system based on the human perception of persuasion aimed at increasing the competitive advantages of one idea over another”. 
“Public relations is the management of the totality of communicative processes, with the aim of achieving mutual understanding and support.” 
Summarizing all the above, we can draw the following conclusions. PR is:
— the science that studies the patterns of communication between the organization and the environment;
— the theory and the method of achieving the consensual society about the role and activities of the organization;
— a concrete list of practical activities;
control function development processes around the organization a favorable socio-organizational space;
— the mechanism and technology of social adaptation and social goals of the ideology of the organization held in the society change;
the art of forming friendly public opinion and an attractive social image of the organization.
However, even knowing the entire theoretical basis it is impossible to fully comprehend the essence of this phenomenon. Very often due to the complex structure definition unobservable, deep-rooted socio-constructive nature of philosophy Institute of PR. Attention is focused mostly on surface elements, the surface of this huge iceberg of the science and art of establishing and maintaining mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and the public. We are talking about a state where both the organization and her community are equal, ravnokonechnymi partners.
We can assume that the reason for the impossibility of exact definition of the term lies in the fact that the object of study PRявляется mass, public consciousness. This notion, of course, is too empirical and nonlinear, and that the word “PR” in principle it is possible to consider as an entity which it is impossible to give a precise definition.
It’s worth remembering a fair comment Kaplan, “the meaning of the term as a private matter of its various meanings and usages”.