Summary: the El-Amarna centre of a new cult.
El-Amarna, the center of a new cult.
Apparently, the gap between the new Pharaoh, his innovative art and cult of the new God of Yota, on the one hand, and the Theban priesthood and ancient traditions, on the other, over time deepened. In the sixth year of his reign Amen-hotp IV moved his court to the new, just built them a capital of Ah Yot (in translation “the Sky of the sun”) [3, p.5-7], to the North of Thebes on the East Bank of the Nile, where nothing resembled the new Pharaoh no God Amun nor his “rich and arrogant priesthood” [1, p.31]. Everything was permeated with the cult of the new God — Iota. It was from the time of the transfer of the capital to Ah-Yot (approximately 1348 BC) not only the names of the old gods, but the words themselves are “gods”, “God” ceased to appear on cancerogenicity monuments, and sometimes even exterminated in the same inscriptions. Thebes was abandoned, the Treasury of Amun no longer receive any income.
Due to the fact that Amen-hotp IV built his capital on the net is now quite easy to restore the layout of the buildings at El-Amarna. So, an important building in ay Yot was located on both sides of the Royal Road (Royal Road). The largest of the buildings – a temple of Yota, the main sanctuary which was completely under the open sky. Near the Great Temple (Great Temple) Iota was a Palace, and a spacious residence of the Royal family [9, Amarna]. Also worth noting is the “southern Palace,” blotted out the inscriptions which have helped scientists learn about the existence of Keye, the side of the wife of Amen-hotpa IV.
Most of the buildings in El – Amarna was built of loose hewn stones, which surface (walls, floors, etc.) was decorated with images of living in a naturalistic style, almost every large building had images of scenes from the life of a family of eh-ne-iota.
Ah-Yot around the Pharaoh appeared and finally established a new bureaucracy and a new priesthood, the priesthood of the God of Yota. Notice that the innovation of Amen-hotpa IV was evident in the very structure of the service: if before the custodian and distributor of the creed was made by the priesthood, in the reign of Ah-ne-iota Pharaoh himself became the universal religious teacher and Herald of the new faith: “No one else would know you (Yot), in addition to your son Nefr-SAR-re and van-re” “I (on behalf of the Oh-not-iota) your son is good for you, praise your name. Your power, your power will stay in my heart”[4, p. 247-248]. In addition to evidence of personal service of Amen-hotpa IV Whit it is supposed that he was the high priest of their God for several months in a 3-4гг. of the reign, perhaps, to finding the right person for this position. Ie, apparently, there was a period when religion was not only objectively, but formally came from one man – the Pharaoh.
Strict “monotheism”, which replaced the ancient polytheism, it was established in the country in fact, according to the will of the king, because of his authority and real power. Even on the outskirts of the country, in the remote temple grounds, followed by capital events. But, as a sharp change of religion was prepared more subjective than objective factors, had the real support of the population, it is natural that after the death of Amen-хотпаIV on the 17th year of the reign of the cult Iota quickly forgotten, he Oh-not Yot declared “rebel”, the position of the old gods (especially Amon) restored. Young Tut-Ankh-Yot (in the lane “Like that (i.e. that’s the way it should be) life Yot”), starting to operate in Ah-Yot suddenly transferred the capital back to Thebes, actually refuses Iota, taking the name Tut-Ankh-Amun, and then dies a “mysterious death” at the age of about 18 years. In the so-called “restoration” inscriptions of Tut-Ankh-Amon said that as a result of the Board Oh-not-KAPS country was in complete shambles, that it turned away from the gods, for the temples of gods and goddesses, ranging from Elephantine and up to the swamps of the Delta were committed to oblivion [1, p.31]. Ah-Yot, city of Amen-hotpa IV, suffered the fate of not better than the one who raised it up. Horemheb, a former ally of the Pharaoh”the heretic,” curses the memory of the former ruler and ruining the Ah-Yot, destroying the tomb of Ah-ne-iota. Later, the stone blocks of the temples once brilliant splendor the sun of the capital of Ramesses II will be used for the construction of Hermopolis.