Summary: The CRO-Magnon.

About 40 thousand years ago, replacing Neanderthal man is Homo sapiens, or Homo sapiens. (It is also called Homo sapiens sapiens.) The place first finds this type of man known as CRO-magnon. Soviet and Russian anthropologists believed that Homo sapiens, the last form of human evolution, was the result of evolution of the Neanderthal man, although the specific path that evolution still remain unsolved. Modern science believes that such changes could occur only as a result of genetic changes — mutations. I used to think that this jump from one man to another could be the result of slow changes, the emergence of new qualities associated with the adaptation to malaysiensis environment. However, modern genetics denies the possibility of such changes without mutations.

By the end of the middle and upper Pleistocene, except for its last stage, are the forms that occupy an intermediate position between that just described and the modern human species. They are characterized by a great morphological diversity and therefore have been repeatedly described in different species. But a more thorough study of them showed that they all belong to one species Homo primigenius-otherwise known as Neanderthal man – named after the first finds in Germany, near düsseldorf, Germany. Later, skeletal remains of adult Neanderthals and Neanderthal children had been discovered in England, Belgium, Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, in the Crimea, different regions of the African continent, Central Asia, Palestine, Iran, Iraq, China.

Earlier Neanderthal type was seen as a dead end in development, leaving no trace in the subsequent evolution of the genus Homo. However, this view did not take into account morphological continuity between Homo primigenius and Homo sapiens, and completely ignored the archaeological evidence of the addition of upper Paleolithic culture based on the culture of the Neanderthal man. Based on these facts, the Russian and many foreign anthropologists defended the theory of a Neanderthal phase in the development of the modern human species, first formulated the famous Czech anthropologist working in the United States, Alesha Hrdlicka. According to this theory, Neanderthal man is an ancestor of the modern, and the morphological type of the last formed as a result of restructuring of the Neanderthal type. By the way, a big role in the justification of the Neanderthal stage was played by the discovery in 1939 Okladnikov Neanderthal in Uzbekistan at Teshik-Tash. Prior to this discovery, the territory of Central and Central Asia, poorly understood archaeologically, often featured as the ancestral home of modern man in the works of the supporters of his independent Neanderthal proishozheniya.