Michael Frayne uses a unique style of writing in the novel Spies, dual narration. So in this essay there will be an investigation into this distinctive style of writing that magnetisms the audience, as it makes the audience feel part of the story. Stephen and Stefan versions of accounts vary, this appeals to the audience as it leaves you guessing too many unanswered questions during the plot. Dual narration has many positives to contribute to the novel, for example numerous independent viewpoints.

However during this novel not entirely independent view points, as the narrators remain the same individual n two separate time periods. The older character Stefan has the benefit of hindsight whilst remember the events of that summer in the sass’s. Whilst Stephen as the .NET Asians of a typical young lad. The two accounts vary as memories are forgotten or Stefan hasn’t remembered the events in the Correct chronological order. (Frayne, Spies, p. 32) So this essay will look into the effect that dual narration has upon on the reader throughout the novel.

Michael Frayne is capable of using dual narration to such an impressive extent during Spies because he as an author is able to connect with the character Stephen and Stefan. The reason as to why these connections can be made is because Michael Frayne would have grown up as a child during the same time period as we see Stephen growing up in the novel, World War 2. (literature. Bronchioles. Org/Michael-Frayne). This also indicates that Frayne would have same ability to remember certain events and recall the memories in the same manner as what Stefan does.

The nature of the dual narration in this novel can become frustrating for the reader. (Hudson, everything is as it was, but everything has changed) The slow progression through the story generates complacency, as the reader wants to advance to the significant vents, before the story arrives at them. As you seem to progress quicker than Stephen is able to, because of the hints and clues Stefan has informed you off prior to Stephens narrating. Even when Stephen finally describes the event, many of the questions you find yourself asking do not get answered.

However the tension and anxiety that Frayne is capable of creating whilst leaving many questions opened and unanswered can entice the reader further into the depth of the novel. (Hellebores, 2004). This effect gets the readers mind HTH inking about the possibilities and directions the story could precede and conclude in. Nevertheless you do find yourself bemused when the story continues in an opposite direction as to the one you had expected it to follow. During Spies dual narration is capable of portraying how an individual’s outlook can change over a period time.

The memories can be forgotten, they can be missed interpreted, or the memories Stefan possesses may not even be his memories, instead they maybe what he wanted to happen instead. (Frayne, Spies, P. 233) This specific passage of the text indicates that Stefan is capable of remembering and realizing how significant certain childhood memories are, even though he did not realism the importance or even consider the possible outcomes at the time as a child’s memory is an innocent one.

It’s only with hind sight that Stefan is capable of understand the importance of Stephens memories. (Lancaster, the New York Book Review). The reader is allowed to accept and believe in Stephens memories and recollection of events only for Stefan to later on correct the series of events. This can also get extremely confusing for the reader, because Stefan and Stephen at various points with in the Novel have a conflict or memories. The way in which Michael Frayne has used the dual oration technique to write Spies has made the novel one of mystery and suspense.