Speech and Communication

paralanguage
voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning. these include vocalizations such as giggling, groaning, or sighing, as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo
back-channel cue
vocal cue = signals when we want to talk & when we don’t (like on phone, saying sure, okay to sig we understand speaker & we want to talk/end a convo)

-reactive responses (such as: “uh-huh”) to signify understanding, agreement, empathy, or the contrary in a conversation

Personal Space
the area surrounding each person, or that region which a person considers their territory or domain
Proximity
nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, or relation
territoriality
attachment to or protection of a territory or domain
touch ethic
a personal sense of how much touching and when touching is appropriate
pitch
the degree of height or depth of a tone or of sound
hearing
the physiological process of decoding sounds; a constant process requiring no effort
listening
the process of making sense out what one hears; requires effort on the part of the listener
listening style
A persons preferred way of making sense uot of messages.
people-oriented
people with this listening style focus on the emotional and relational aspects of communication
action-oriented
people with this listening style prefer clear, efficient information
content-oriented
people with this listening style are able to deal with complex information
time-oriented
people with this listening style prefer short, limited messages
Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
Stages of Culture Shock
Stage One: The Honeymoon. This is your first experience in the new place. You feel a sense of enchantment, and fascination over the new culture and its people.

Stage Two: The Crisis. This is when the differences between your culture and the other culture create problems. They create feelings of frustration and inadequacy. This is the main stage of shock.

Stage Three: The Recovery. During the recovery period you gain the skills necessary to function effectively in the new culture. You learn the ways and the customs of the new culture. The feelings of inadequacy and frustration subside.

Stage Four: The Adjustment. This stage is the final stage of culture shock. This is when you finally adjust to the new culture and the new experiences. You may still have difficulties but you will still have a pleasant experience.

cultural context
the relative emphasis different cultures place on nonverbal communication
high context culture
cultures that place a high emphasis on nonverbal communication
low context culture
cultures that do not place a high emphasis on nonverbal communication
individualism
placing a high value on individual accomplishments and individual competition
collectivism
place a high value on the accomplishments of a group
masculine
the traditional social and cultural ideas of male characteristics
feminine
the traditional social and cultural ideas of female characteristics
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
Impersonal
not personal; without reference or connection to a particular person; lacking human emotion or warmth
conversational turns
taking turns; the give and take within a conversation
opening
the way in which we begin a conversation
buisness
the content or general message of a conversation; what the conversation is about
closing
the way you finish your conversation
relationship
a particular type of connection existing between people who have sustained interactions
contact stage
a particular type of connection existing between people who have sustained interactions
involvement stage
the second stage of a relationship during which two people test one another’s boundaries, develop connections, and self disclose
intimacy stage
the third stage of a relationship where deep interpersonal commitments form; dependent upon openness and honesty
deterioration stage
the fourth stage of a relationship during which conflict comes into play between two people; parties turn inward rather than sharing thoughts and emotions
repair stage
the fifth stage of a relationship during which an attempt to make amends is made; both intrapersonal and interpersonal
dissolution stage
the final stage of a relationship during which the two parties decide the relationship cannot be repaired; ends in separation
friend
a person we are fond of and who is fond of us, who shares common interests, and provides support
family
any group of persons closely related by blood, as parents, children, uncles, aunts, and cousins; or a group of people who are generally not blood relations but who share common attitudes, interests, or goals
colleague
an associate or someone with whom we work
interpersonal conflict
a disagreement or clash between two or more people
constructive
helping to improve; promoting further development or advancement
assertive communication
confident, self-assured, positive communication
aggressive communication
bold and forward communication; pushy; tending toward unprovoked offensives, attacks, invasions, or the like
conflict management
dealing with conflict in either confrontational, non-confrontational, or cooperative ways
topic
the main idea or main point; what your speech is about
persuasive
a speech that attempts to persuade or influence the opinions of the audience
informative
a speech for the purpose of informing the audience about a certain topic
purpose
the reason behind this particular topic; why you are speaking about this i the first place
thesis
the specific detailed subject for an essay or speech
Intergrate
to unite into a whole
emphasize
v. To articulate or enunciate with special impressiveness upon a word, or a group of words.
complement
contradict
regulate
to control and bring to a desired point or level
ambiguous

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