Song Dynasty

Epitaph:
a biography of someone who has died that was placed in their tomb; an important source for Chinese ideals about model women in the 12th and 13th centuries
Shadow privilege:
privilege extended to sons and relatives of Song dynasty officials who were allowed to take a less competitive series of examinations, often with a pass-rate of 50%
Zhu Xi:
the leading thinker of Neo-Confucianism
Neo-Confucianism:
teachings of a thinker named Zhu Xi and his followers, based on Confucianism but introducing major revisions; rather than focusing on ritual and inner humanity, Zhu Xi urged the students to apprehend the principle in things
(Tang dynasty ruled before; 5 dynasty period (local rulers), general comes to power in one and then takes over others and reunites china and forms the Song dynasty; he fills his capital in Kaifeng and keeps a lot of the Tang government structures in place and shifts the focus of the dynasty towards civilian, not military rule)
The Rise of the Northern Song Dynasty
(Song faced threats from the Khitan peoples in Mongolia, formed alliance w/ the Jurchens another northern group; Jurchens turn on song and then capture northern china and turn into Jin dynasty to rule northern china)
Khitan, Jurchens (Jin) and Collapse of Northern Song Dynasty
(500,000 middle and upper class people flee northern china ruled by the Jin; one of the emperors sons flees as well to Hangzhou and makes a new capital and begins the southern Song dynasty; the Jurchen and southern song dynasty sign a peace treaty that makes the song pay tribute to the Jurchen)
The Southern Song Dynasty & Southern Migration
(southern china grows rice; they drain swamps and improve rice growing techniques; a new strain of rice from Vietnam is mixed w/ Chinese rice and it is able to be harvested two times a year; population growth which leads to people moving to cities to become specialists)
Agricultural Changes
(Trade and markets start to emerge; barter-rice for tools, coins-money, paper money-money to pay)
Economic Growth and Development
(status symbol of wealthy because they could afford to have people work for them so no need for women; court dancers started it; use it today to look good but there are really no benefits)
Foot binding
(700-wood block and 1000 movable type printing decrease the price of books, it all led to an increase in literacy, allows more people to take the civil service exam which leads to a better meritocracy)
The Education Boom
(Neo means new, Study the “principle of things”, get to root of behavior)
Neo-Confucianism & Zhu Xi
o Printing: Confucian texts could be published, medicine documents could be published, books could be published quicker and easier so the price could be lowered
o Paper money: made people not have to carry around heavy weight of money, easier to bring money on travels
o Porcelain: allowed people to eat and drink things out of these containers and silverware
o Tea: hot drink able to be enjoyed and used for medicinal use
o Restaurants: people could eat out for a cheap price and not have to make their own food
o Gun powder: used for fireworks and military weapons such as flamethrower, anti-personnel mines, rockets, and cannons, grenades
o Compass: people could know what direction they had to go in, helped prevent people being lost or crashing, helps shorten length of trip
o Iron steel: helps w/ strength and weight
Describe and explain the key inventions of the Song dynasty
A guy has a bird who is taken from him because it is so expensive. Multiple deaths caused because of this
Know the questions from “The Canary Murders” reading assignment and the basic plot of the story.
The cheaper books became because of printing, the more people wanted to and were able to read
Relate the book publishing and educational boom to the commercial revolution.
How did the migration south, combined with the commercial revolution, affect Chinese society?
The more people traveled around the world to trade, the more of a need there was to have lighter paper money to bring with them
How did the commercial revolution affect the monetary system in China?
Li Qinghai:
famous woman poet of the Song dynasty who fled south with her husband Zhao Mingcheng when the Jurchen armies conquered north China, wrote a first person memoir about their marriage
Song dynasty:
dynasty that ruled a united china from the northern capital of Kaifeng from 960-1126 and only the southern half of the empire from 1127-1276
Jin dynasty:
dynasty of the Jurchen people of Manchuria that ruled north china from 1127-1234 when the Mongols defeated their armies, they modeled their government on that of the Song dynasty
Paper money:
money issued around 1000 by the Song dynasty that could be used instead of bronze coins, the Song dynasty was the first government in world history to issue it
New policies:
reforms introduced by Wang Anshi, a grand councilor of the Song dynasty, implemented between 1069-1086; these included paying all government salaries in money and extending interest-free loans to poor peasants
Movable type:
first developed in china after 1040, printers made individual characters from clay, fired them in a kiln, set them in an iron frame, and printed pages by pressing paper against the inked type

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