Sociology study guide TEST 2

Playing Theory
the first stage in childhood development, in which we learn to imitate the roles of others around us, or role-play. This includes teachers, parents and close relatives.
Looking Glass Self Theory
The looking-glass self is a social psychological concept, created by Charles Horton Cooley in 1902, stating that a person’s self grows out of society’s interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others.
Generalized Other
an individual’s internalized impression of societal norms and expectations.
Agents of socialization
Family, School, Peers,
Peer Pressure
influence from members of one’s peer group.
Re socialization
Resocialization is defined [by whom?] as the process by which one’s sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered. This process is often [quantify] deliberately carried out through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution.
Total Institution
A total institution is a place of work and residence where a great number of similarly situated people, cut off from the wider community for a considerable time, lead an enclosed, formally administered life together. The term was coined by the American sociologist Erving Goffman.
Master Status
In Sociology, master status is the social position that is the primary identifying characteristic of an individual. The term master status is defined as “a status that has exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.”
Role Strain
Strain is experienced within one particular role, such as being a student, while conflict occurs between two different roles, such as being a student and an employee.
Status Set
A status set is a collection of social statuses that an individual holds. A person may have status of a daughter, wife, mother, student, worker, church member and a citizen. The term “status set” was coined by Robert K. Merton in 1957.
Ascribed Status
Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. It is a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned. … In contrast, an achieved status is a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects both personal ability and merit.
Gender Role
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
is a group of two people, the smallest possible social group. … The pair of individuals in a dyad can be linked via romantic interest, family relation, interests, work, partners in crime, and so on.
Triad is a group of three people in sociology. It is one of the simplest human groups that can be studied and is mostly looked at by microsociology. The study of triads, as well as dyads, was pioneered by German sociologist Georg Simmel at the end of the nineteenth century.
Tertius gaudens
Tertius gaudens (translated as rejoicing third in English) refers to a situation in which one party benefits from a conflict among two others. The term is often attributed to the German sociologist Georg Simmel.
Simmels ideas on Divide and conquer
“divide and conquer” . this person intentionally drives a wedge between the other two parties
Primary groups
a group held together by intimate, face-to-face relationships, formed by family and environmental associations and regarded as basic to social life and culture.
In groups
In-groups are social groups to which an individual feels he or she belongs, while an individual doesn’t identify with the out-group.
Out- Groups
people outside one’s own group, especially as considered to be inferior or alien; a group perceived as other than one’s own
Reference Group
A reference group is a group to which an individual or another group is compared. Sociologists call any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior a reference group.
Embeddedness, in social science, the dependence of a phenomenon—be it a sphere of activity such as the economy or the market, a set of relationships, an organization, or an individual—on its environment, which may be defined alternatively in institutional, social, cognitive, or cultural terms.
Structural holes
Structural holes is a concept from social network research, originally developed by Ronald Stuart Burt. The study of structural holes spans the fields of sociology, economics, and computer science. Burt introduced this concept in an attempt to explain the origin of differences in social capital.
Six degrees of separation
Six degrees of separation is the idea that all living things and everything else in the world is six or fewer steps away from each other so that a chain of “a friend of a friend” statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps
Social Capital
is the goodwill available to individuals or groups. Its source lies in the structure and content of the actor’s social relations. Its effects flow from the information, influence, and solidarity it makes available to the actor.”
Civic disengagement and the decline of social capital
An example culture that has endured and maintained its traditions despite modern U.S. life
Emphasis on abstinence programs and virginity pledges under the Bush administration has led to what in the United States.
The Hart Cellar Act
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (enacted June 30, 1968), also known as the Hart-Celler Act, changed the way quotas were allocated by ending the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.
The consequences of the Hart Cellar Act
The Hart-Celler Act abolished the quota system based on national origins that had been American immigration policy since the 1920s. … However, immediate relatives of U.S. citizens and “special immigrants” had no restrictions.
Organizational culture
Organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations. These shared values have a strong influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and perform their jobs.
Sexual orientation was grounds for excluding immigrants from the U.S.
Lawrence v Texas
In 2003, the Court overturned a Texas anti-sodomy law as a violation of the right to privacy and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Lawrence v. Texas (2003), the Supreme Court ruled that state laws banning homosexual sodomy are unconstitutional as a violation of the right to privacy.
Formal Deviance
Formal deviance includes criminal violation of formally-enacted laws.
Informal Deviance
Informal deviance refers to violations of informal social norms, which are norms that have not been codified into law.
Collective conscience
the set of shared beliefs, ideas and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society. The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in his Division of Labour in Society in 1893.
Social cohesion
Social Cohesion is defined as a cohesive society that… Works toward the well being of all its members. Fights exclusion and marginalisation. Creates a sense of belonging. Promotes trust.
Mechanical solidarity
Mechanical solidarity is the social integration of members of a society who have common values and beliefs. These common values and beliefs constitute a “collective conscience” that works internally in individual members to cause them to cooperate.
Organic solidarity
Organic solidarity is social unity based on a division of labor that results in people depending on each other; it contrasts with mechanical solidarity. In sociology, organic solidarity explains what binds technologically advanced, industrialized societies together.
Rehabilitative forms of punishment
Restitutive punishment
The purpose of restitutive law is to restore relations to the way they were–a return in state.
Social control and compliance in norms
Industrialized societies social sanctions are most likely what?
Formal social sanctions
formal sanctions are legally sanctioned. An example of a formal sanction would be the UN sanctions implemented against the Islamic Republic of Iran,
Informal social sanctions
informal sanctions are not legalized. An example of an informal sanction would be the Montgomery bus boycotts that took place in 1955/1956 in Montgomery, Alabama.
Normative compliance
Normative means relating to an ideal standard or model, or being based on what is considered to be the normal or correct way of doing something. Normative has specialized meanings in different academic disciplines such as philosophy, social sciences, and law
Anomic types of suicide
Egoistic suicide: When a person commits this type of suicide they are not well supported in a social group. They feel like they are an outsider or loner and the only people they have in this world are themselves.

Altruistic suicide: This type of suicide occurs when the degree of social integration is too high.They take their lives for a cause. A good example of this would be a suicide bomber.

Anomic Suicide: This type of suicide is committed during times of great stress or change. Life is too much for them to handle and it becomes meaningless to them. An example of this is when the market crashes or spikes.

Fatalistic suicide: People commit this suicide when their lives are kept under tight regulation. They often live their lives under extreme rules and high expectations.

Conformist suicide
Ritualist suicide
The story of the abused child named Anna and the influences of human development
George Herbert Mead
was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists.
C Preparing for Power book that explores the role that private prep schools play in regards to power
One of the reasons Seasame street was created.
Something about educating people that are poor because they could not afford school. Directed towards African Americans.
Solomon Asch’s experiment

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