gender
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male. 1) social organization ranking men and women in terms of power, wealth, etc 2) males: taller, stronger, math. females: higher life expectancy, verbal skills
gender stratification
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women. 1) 59% females work, Pink Collar jobs (secretary and administrative) are 75% women. 2) women earn 77 cents to men’s dollar. 3) more women in schools, men in politics.
matriarchy
a form of social organization in which females dominate males
patriarchy
a form of social organization in which males dominate females
sexism
the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other
gender roles
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. 1) males-ambitious, competitive=leadership and sports 2) females-deferential, emotional=supportive help, quick to show feelings
minority
any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
gerontology
the study of aging and the elderly. 1) biological changes-health 2) psychological-intelligence
age stratification
The unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege among people at different stages of the life course. 1) varies across a society’s level of technology
gerontocracy
a form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige
ageism
prejudice and discrimination against older people. 1) passing over old people on job applicants 2) firing old people first 3) gray hair, wrinkles are stereotypes of old age-glaze over individuality
disengagement theory
the view that society is stabilized by having the elderly retire their positions of responsibility so the younger generation can step into their shoes. 1) makes room for young people 2) structural-functional analysis
activity theory
The idea that a high level of activity increases personal satisfaction in old age. 1) people need to find new roles to replace old ones 2) activities are diverse and based on the individual 3) symbolic interaction approach
euthanasia
assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease; also known as mercy killing. 1) refuses treatment, takes steps to end life
race
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important. 1) color, facial features, body shape
ethnicity
a shared cultural heritage. 1) ancestry, language, religion 2) socially constructed by cultural traits
prejudice
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people. 1) targets social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, physical disability, race or ethnicity 2) positive and negative 3) students greater acceptance 4) people see less difference between minorities 5) after 9/11, acceptance for arabs and muslims declined
sterotype
a simplified description applied to every person in some category. harmful to minorities in workplace
racism
the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another
scapegoat
person or category of people, typically with little power, when people unfairly blame for their own troubles. minorities are targets.
discrimination
unequal treatment of various categories of people. 1) matter of action 2) can be positive and negative
institutional prejudice/discrimination
Bias built into the operation of society’s institutions. Example- bankers reject Af American mortage apps more than whites
pluralism
A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing. 1) no one wants to be exactly alike 2) tolerance goes so far 3) various colors/cultures are not equal in US
assimilation
the process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture. 1) dress, values, religion, language, friends 2) changes in ethnicity, not race
segregation
the physical and social separation of categories of people
education
the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values.
schooling
formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers
tracking
assigning students to different types of educational programs
functional illiteracy
a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living. 1) 1/8 children 20% adults 2) below most middle income nations, higher than high income nations
mainstreaming
Integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall educational program. 1) inclusive education. 2) allowing students to interact with eachother despite differences
family
a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children
kinship
a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
marriage
a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing
extended family
a family composed of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family. 1) shared blood
nuclear family
a family composed of one or two parents and their children
endogamy
marriage between people of the same social category. 1) limits partners to people of same age, race, religion, social class 2) maintaining traditional social hierarchy 3) caste system
exogamy
marriage between people of different social categories. 1) links communities and encourages spread of culture 2) interracial
monogamy
marriage that unites two partners
polygamy
marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
polygyny
the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women
patrilocality
a residential pattern where a married couple lives with or near the husband’s family
matrilocality
A residential pattern in which a married couple lives with or near the wife’s family
patrilineal descent
a system tracing kinship through men. 1) children related to fathers. 2) more common, men produce valued resources
matrilineal descent
a system tracing kinship through women. 1) moms pass property to daughters. 2) horticulture societies, women=food producers
incest taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives.
homogamy
marriage between people with the same social characteristics
family violence
emotional, physical, or sexual abuse of one family member by another. 1) 73% domestic violence against women 2) 58% women, 42% men of abuse towards children
cohabitation
the sharing of a household by an unmarried couple. 1) increasing 2) 50% people between 25-44 3) appealing to independent people and favor gender equality 4) half marry, half split up after a few years
polyandry
a form of marriage in which women have more than one husband
family of affinity
people who think of themselves as family. 1) boyfriends/girlfriends, close family friends
family unit
social group of 2 or more people, related by blood, marriage, or adoption, who usually live together
feminism
support of social equality for women and men 1) increase equality 2) expand human choice 3) eliminate gender stratification 4) end sexual violence 5) promote sexual freedom
hidden curriculum
subtle presentations of cultural or political ideas in the classroom about race, gender, and class
glass ceiling
barrier that stops womens involvement in middle management
liberal feminsim
freedom of individual. support reproductive rights of women. work alone and on their own to solve problem
radical feminism
society must eliminate gender. no revolution would solve problem.
socialist feminism
eliminate domestic slavery. equality based on power, prestige, wealth. need a revolution to solve problem.