Sociology Chapter 3 : Social Stratification

Social Stratification
Ranking of people and the rewards they receive based on objective criteria, often including wealth, power and / or prestige.
Income
Money received for work or through investments.
Wealth
All your material possessions, including income.
Power
Ability to carry out your will and impose it on others.
Delegated
Means given or assigned.
Power Elite
Small group of people who hold immense power.
Prestige
Level of esteem (respect & admiration) associated with one’s status and social standing.
Upper or Elite Class
Social class that is very small in number and holds significant wealth.
Upper Middle Class
Social class that consists of high-income members of society who are well educated but don’t belong to the elite super-wealthy class.
Lower Middle Class
Social class that consists of those who have moderate incomes.
Working Class
Social class generally made up of people with high school certificates and lower levels of education.
Underclass
Social class living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods that are characterised by four components: poverty, family disruption, male unemployment, and lack of individuals in high-status occupations.
Transitional Poverty
Temporary state of poverty that occurs when someone loses a job for a short time.
Marginal Poverty
State of poverty that occurs when a person lacks stable employment.
Residual Poverty
Chronic and multigenerational poverty.
Absolute Poverty
Poverty so severe that one lacks resources to survive.
Relative Poverty
State of poverty that occurs when we compare ourselves to those around us.
Social Mobility
Ability to change social classes
Horizontal Mobility
Refers to moving within the same status category
Vertical Mobility
Refers to moving from one social status to another.
Intragenerational Mobility
Occurs when an individual changes social standing, especially in the workforce. (Within the same generation).
Intergenerational Mobility
Refers to the change that family members make from one social class to the next through generations.
Structural Mobility
Occurs when social changes affect large numbers of people.
Exchange Mobility
Concept suggesting that each social class contains a relatively fixed number of people.
Meritocracy Argument
States that those who get ahead do so based on their merit.

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