Sociology: Chapter 1 Exam Review

individuals and society
the primary relationships studied by sociologists are the ones between ________
d. all of the above
which of the following is an accurate description of sociology?
a. the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society
b. the systematic study of how social relationships influence people’s behavior
c. the systematic study of how major social institutions and individuals interact
d. all of the above
is an awareness of the relationship between individuals and social forces
the sociological imagination ________
as an outsider
one way to develop a sociological imagination is to view your own society _________
the interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties
a sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on ___________
a study of the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to that of people listening to a rock concert
what would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination?
both a private trouble and a public issue
unemployment can be viewed as _____
helps us to understand the perspectives of people from different social circumstances.
the sociological imagination is an empowering tool because it _________
society’s shared knowledge and skills
the fact that it is possible to make a hamburger without having to personally complete every one of the many steps that go into making a hamburger from scratch illustrates _________
d. all of the answers are correct
which of the following are the key components of the definition of sociology?
a. systematic study
b. the individual and society
c. the consequences of social differences
d. all of the answers are correct
the consequences of difference
the fact that men in Indonesia are more likely to survive certain kinds of natural disaster, because men in that society are generally taught to swim while women are not, is an example of ________
social inequality
a condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is referred to as _______
science
a body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation is called a __________
engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding
sociology is considered a science because sociologists
__________
social sciences
fields of study that explore the ways the behavior features of humans interact and change are considered ________
natural sciences
fields of study that explore the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change are considered _________
rock formations and composition in the grand canyon
a natural scientist would be likely to study _________
reasons for the decreasing divorce rate in the united states
a social scientist would be likely to study the _________
how do the positions we occupy influence our experience of the crisis?
what would be the type of question a sociologist might ask in studying the global economic crisis that began in 2008?
unreliable
sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, commonsense conclusions are ________
emphasize the distinction between sociology and common sense
a sociological study of the divorce rate among U.S. soldiers served to _________
theory
a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior is called a __________
the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society
emile durkheim’s study of suicide related suicide rates to __________
developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data
emile durkheim’s explanation of suicide was scientific because he ________
suicide rates are a reflection of whether people are, or are not, integrated into the group life of a society
what statement is an example of a sociological theory?
emile durkheim
which sociologist established europe’s first university department of sociology?
– he sought to establish a science that would reveal the basic “laws of society”
– he thought humans could learn to understand the forces that helped society to maintain order and stability
– he thought humans could learn to understand the forces that caused society to change
what is true about august comte?
– she introduced the significance of inequality and power into the discipline of sociology
– she believed scholars should be activists and not just commentators
what is true about harriet martineau?
popular songs
harriet martineau argued that we could learn a lot about a culture by analyzing the ideas, themes, and images reflected in which type of cultural product?
loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
anomie refers to a ________
anomie
in many emerging nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in emerging nations are likely to suffer ________
the loss of social order
durkheim was particularly concerned about __________
humans’ ability to transform raw material into finished products
what did karl marx view as the key factor distinguishing humans from animals?
ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources
in karl marx’s analysis, social inequality is determined by _______
social status and organizational resources
max weber’s theory of power included _________
macrosociology
sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as ______
macrosociology
a study of divorce rates among the populations of canada, england, the united states, and france is an example of _________
microsociology
what stresses the study of small groups?
microsociology
a sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. this would be an example of ________
compares everyday life to a theatrical performance
erving goffman popularized the dramaturgical approach, which ________
race
w. e. b. du bois investigated power and inequality based on ___________
gender and race
ida wells-barnett investigated power and inequality based on ________
she used sociology as a tool to improve the lives of the urban poor
what is true about jane addams?
society is structured to maintain stability
what is a functionalist perspective?
functionalist perspective
which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability, then it does not serve a useful function?
that these political organizations satisfy certain basic social needs
a functionalist perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city political machines suggests ________
conflict perspective
which sociological perspective emphasizes the distribution of power and the allocation of resources?
conflict perspective
critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy, white males who decide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. this analysis reflects the __________
– women and men
– the wealthy and the poor
– blacks and whites
with what conflicting groups are contemporary conflict theorists concerned?
uses everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole
interactionist perspective _______
interactionist perspective
which sociological approach would argue that people respect laws or disobey them based on their own past experience as well as their subjective understanding of the law?
conflict perspective
which sociological perspective would argue that laws reinforce the positions of those in power?
functionalist perspective
which sociological perspective would argue that public punishments reinforce the social order?
functionalist perspective
which sociological perspective would argue that social change is predictable in its progression toward greater order?
functionalists
the view that social order is maintained through cooperation and consensus would most likely be held by _______
interactionist perspective
which sociological perspective would suggest that social change is reflected in people’s communication patterns and social positions?
draw insights from all three major sociological perspectives
in general, sociologists tend to ___________
requires recognition of how our individual position in society shapes our perspective
personal sociology _______
applied sociology
using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as ________
a. clinical sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
which of the following statements is true?
a. clinical sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
b. applied sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
c. applied sociology has become less popular in recent decades
d. clinical sociology has existed for only the last 20 years
globalization
the worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as _______
false
true or false: a sociological relationship between the individual and society is one in which the choices of the individual are determined by the individual’s societal position
true
true or false: given c. wright mills’ description of the sociological imagination as our ability to see the interaction between history and biography, it follows that neither society nor the individual can be understood in isolation from the other
false
true or false: the main purpose of the “hamburger as miracle” story is to show that, when the need arises, all individuals are capable of achieving their goals without the help of others
true
true or false: the observation by sociologists that the 2004 indian ocean tsunami killed a higher proportion of men than women is an example of the importance of the consequences of difference
false
true or false: sociology can most accurately be considered a natural science because it involves the systematic examination of the effects of human nature on society
true
true or false: the fact that sociologists have found little difference between the sexes in terms of talkativeness is an example of why the systematic analysis of facts is generally more reliable than common sense knowledge
true
true or false: according to durkheim’s theory about the causes of suicide, the more interconnected and interdependent a society’s members, the lower its suicide rate should be
true
true or false: of the three main sociological perspectives, the dramaturgical approach, as popularized by Erving Goffman, would best be considered an example of the interactionist perspective
true
true or false: a sociologist who views religion as a societal institution that functions to preserve existing inequalities is most likely to be a conflict theorist in terms of perspective
true
true or false: of the various ways to practice sociology, the way that offers the most direct link between theory and practice is clinical sociology

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