Concerning to Quantitative data the sampling can be implemented for probability and statistics, and the entire population can be highly represented by the sample while Qualitative data mostly give information about social events and is not probabilistic to represent the other events out of its reach and boundaries. CASE STUDY: Through this study we plan to describe the existing teacher education provision in Botswana and the way it affects the teaching learning relation for these children.
The main objectives of this study are 1. Describing and analyzing the socio-cultural framework of Basarwa children. 2. Refining role of teacher and learner, state, college of education in initial teacher preparation. 3. Redefining and recontextualising education. The data unit’s attributes are determined by the study of objectives above. Data unit besides being confined to population can be artifacts, events and contexts . School sites can grant restricted information from where the relation of student and teacher can be described and understood somehow.
As we have different sampling methods and strategies for the different nature of data, in this case study Maximum Purposive Sampling Strategy is used due to the heterogeneous nature of data and the wide range of distribution of school in the country. Merriam said about the Maximum Purposive Sampling Strategy that it stresses on a criterion based selection of information rich cases which contain much information good for researcher’s knowledge.
So by using this strategy the learner and the teacher relation in class rooms situated on wide variation of school sites in country with different languages, social and cultural identities, is tried to be understood and see the difference who link their identity to the customary sense and the once who do not. Second step is comparison and the relative case study involves gathering and analyzing data from the four preferred cases of schools to understand the impacts of difference in socio-cultural backgrounds of teacher and learner to their class room interaction.
One of the advantages of comparative case study is that it increases the validity and generalizability of research result. The maximum purposive sampling strategy has some short comings too. Like the generalizability of data becomes really difficult when it is descriptive in nature and is used to explain a socio-cultural relation in a specific context as a class room. Bazanger and Dodier searched about the reasons of generalization of ethnographic research from different approaches and found monographic totalization that can be achieved by integrative ethnographic approach, lacking in one context for comparison because of culture differences.
The validity and reliability of the once who conduct the research is also a big issue as the researcher thoughts can be influenced by their own knowledge background and their empathetic feelings for others. On the other hand the researcher’s own cultural tradition can influenced the research result so it is necessary to study the social background as a basis for understanding the behavior and socio-culture. Another issue is that individual study in such a multilayered, superfluous case is not sufficient for good research result which later on is compared and contrasted with other results.
Through the comparison of some research results from different schools cannot be generalized for the whole population. According to Miller who suggests Ethnomethodology, dialogue and communication analysis as discrete standpoints from which material aspects of social life may be seen and analyzed. By this method every case in the research study can be treated as a matchless case worthy of its own analysis and a freedom to researchers to explain reality from their own point of view rather than that of other researchers.