What does S.O.A.P.S stand for?
Source – who wrote it
Occasion- what is it (letter, speech)
Audience- who is it to
Purpose – why is it important
What do Romans speak?
Who was labeled dictator for life?
Who were the common citizens of Rome?
Which Christian leader wrote letters that transformed into the Epistoles of the new testament?
Who was the ruler who moved the capital of Rome and approved Christianity?
Greco-Roman culture is referred as?
What were Roman’s water channel’s called?
What was Roman’s army called?
Which Roman ruler split Rome into two?
What is the period of peace and prosperity in Rome?
Who was the first pope?
What is another name for members of the aristocracy?
Which one of these is NOT latin based: French, German, Italian, Spanish?
What caused the decline of the Roman Empire
-political and social causes
What do you think were the Roman’s greatest achievements? Support your opinions with evidence.
-architecture, engineering technology (pantheon, dome)
-law and government (12 tables and how we still use them today)
-classical art (tiles, mummy paintings)
In the early Roman government, who were the consuls?
The chief executive of the government
What was the conflict of interests between Rome and Carthage?
The Mediterranean Sea
Why were mercenaries useful?
Mercenaries fought for lower pay.
How did Rome treat different sections of conquered territory?
Neighboring Latins became full citizens of Rome.
Conquered peoples far away enjoyed all rights of Roman citizenship except vote.
All others were allies of Rome. Rome did not interfere with allies as long as they supplied troops and didn’t make treaties with any other state.
What were two things Diocletion did to slow the decline?
1). Split the empire
2). Fixed prices on goods
What effect did moving the capital have?
This made the East side of Rome’s empire stronger and lead the West side of Rome’s empire to fall.
Why did the Germanic’s invade Rome?
They invaded Rome because the huns started invading their own land so, the Germanic’s were trying to take over part of Rome and flee to there.
What was the end to Pompeii?
Big Era 4: Two Key Developments
2). Expanding Networks of Exchange
5 Causes of Population Growth
1). Invention of Iron
2). Pastoral Nomadism and Farming
3). Improved species in crops
4). Horses and Camels
5). People lived in denser places
4 Consequences of Population Growth
2). Complex Societies
3). Collective Learning Increased
Definition of Expanding Networks of Exchange
A network of exchange is a web of connections through which goods, ideas, and people circulate.
What are four examples of Expanding Networks of Exchange?
What do you consider to be the key characteristic of the early Roman Republic? Why?
Their strong military and powerful government (Aristocracy) because the strong military helped defend the republic and the government helped keep the republic organized and stable.
What limits were there on the power of the Roman consuls?
A consul’s term was only one year long and the same person could not be elected consul again for ten years.
What was the significance of the Twelve Tables?
The Twelve Tables were written law code and became the basis for not only Rome law but also today’s governments such as USA.
How was Hannibal’s attack on Rome daring and different?
Hannibal sought to surprise the Romans with a most daring and risky move. He led his army on a long trek from Spain across France and through the Alps. So, he went around and attacked from the back instead of the front.
Do you think the Roman Republic owed its success more to its form of government or its army? Why?
This question is opinionated!
(My answer: I think the Roman Republic owed its success to its army because, without the protection any enemy can ruin Rome and end the Republic quicker than a weak form of government.)
Do you agree with claims that early Rome had achieved a “balanced” government? Explain.
This question is also opinionated!
(My answer: Yes; because Rome has already organized their law codes, which structures their form of government. Also, USA’s law basis most of their laws on Rome laws. They base it on their laws because Rome laws create a organized, balanced government.)
How did Rome expand its territory and maintain control over it?
Rome’s military dominated the land.
What changes do you consider negative? Why?
Example: The Roman’s republic turning into an empire is a negative because the empire doesn’t represent the people.
What factors contributed to the fall of the Roman Republic?
The gap between rich and poor, death of all the emperors, the laziness of the soldiers, and the foreign invaders.
What were the main reasons for the Romans’ success in controlling such a large empire?
Pax Romana, efficient government, and able rulers.
What measures did the government take to distract and control the masses of Rome?
The government took measures to distract and control the masses of Rome by providing free games, races, mock battles, and the gladiator contests.
What role did Julius Caesar play in the decline of the republic and the rise of the empire?
Caesar was a strong leader and a genius at military strategy. He was consul for one year then, appointed himself governor of Gaul. (Background of how Caesar became dictator: Pompey and the senate fearing Caesar’s ambitions, ordered him to disband his legions and return home. Caesar refused defeated all Pompey’s armies and was supported by all army’s and masses in Rome.) The senate appointed him dictator for life. Caesar governed as an absolute ruler and started a number of reforms. He also expanded the senate, helped the poor by creating jobs, started colonies, and increased pay for soldiers.
What aspects of Roman society remained similar from republic to empire?
Religion, Slavery, Social status, and Laws. Laws changed slightly, but were still similar.
What was Augustus’s greatest contribution to Roman society? Why?
This is opinionated:
(My answer: Augustus created a system of government that survived for centuries. This is his greatest contribution because this gives Rome a stable empire to live on for a very long time.)
What were some political causes of the Western fall of Rome?
-Political office seen as burden, not reward
-Military interference in politics
-Civil war and unrest
-Division of empire
-Moving of capital to Byzantium
What were some social causes of the Western fall of Rome?
-Decline in interest in public affairs
-Low confidence in empire
-Disloyalty, lack of patriotism, corruption
-Contrast between rich and poor
-Decline in population due to disease and food shortage
What were some economic causes of the Western fall of Rome?
-Disruption of trade
-No more war plunder
-Gold and silver drain
-Crushing tax burden
-Widening gap between rich and poor and increasingly impoverished Western Empire
What were some Military causes of the Western fall of Rome?
-Threat from northern European tribes
-Low funds for defense
-Problems recruiting Roman citizens; recruiting of non-Romans
-Decline of patriotism and loyalty among soldiers
What caused inflation? (similar to question above but more specific)
The disappearance of money, the decline of trade, the control of government over economic welfare, the decrease in value of coin, and the laws that bound people to the same job.
What caused an untrustworthy army? (similar to question above but more specific)
The army was getting untrustworthy because they started letting mercenaries into the army. When they did that the old soldiers started fighting and taking different sides.
What caused political instability? (similar to question above but more specific)
The lack of a peaceful and orderly way to transfer power to new rulers and the hostility between the Senate and the Emperor.
What were the main internal causes of the empire’s decline?
The political instability, social decline, economic deterioration, and military collapse.
How did Diocletian succeed in preserving the empire? (similar to question before but more specific)
Split the empire, Fixed prices on goods, Increased strength, and Doubled size of Roman army.
How do you think the splitting of the empire into two parts helped it survive for another 200 years?
Kind of Opinionated
(My answer: I think splitting the empire into two parts helped Rome survive for another two years because it allowed one part to fall; which made Rome’s empire smaller and easier to rule and prosper.)
Which of Rome’s internal problems do you think were the most serious?
(My 答え: I think the economic decline because when the economy falls the social, military and political fall too. The social falls because of the contrast between rich and poor, the military falls because the lowered pay, and the political side falls because of the lower pay for office too.
Why do you think the eastern half of the empire survived?
(mi respuesta: The Eastern side was wealthier and the capital was in the Eastern side, which made the main trade in the Eastern side making the western side harder to get resources. Also the vast number of enemies surrounded the western side.)
What did Jesus emphasize in his early teachings?
He emphasized God’s God’s personal relationship to each human being.
Why did the early Christians face persecution from the Romans?
The early Christians faced persecution from the Romans because Christianity goes against Roman religious beliefs, esp. many Gods.
What was the importance of the Nicene Creed?
The Nicene Creed defined the basic beliefs of the Church.
Do you think Christianity would have developed in the same way if it had arisen in an area outside the Roman Empire? Explain.
Sort of Opinionated:
(respondeo: I don’t think it would have; because one of the main reasons that benefited Christianity’s growth and development was the Pax Romana. The Pax Romana was a period of peace so, this allowed Christianity to grow without any wars or fighting.
Who did more to spread Christianity- Paul or Constantine? Why?
(meine Antwort: I think Constantine helped Christianity’s spread more because he declared Christianity to be one of the religions approved by the emperor and ended persecutions of Christians. He also gave all of his credits to God and Christianity, which would make his people want to follow this religion because a God who can do such great things might benefit oneself.)
Why do you think Roman leaders so opposed the rise of a new religion among their subjects?
This was because when a citizen chose to believe in Christianity the Roman leaders felt an opposition or a refusal to follow their rules. Therefore, Roman leaders would lose their power if the multiple Christians decided to overthrow them.
What is the difference between a civil war and a revolution?
A civil war is a war between citizens in the same country.
A revolution is a war fought to overthrow or get rid of a government in order establish a new one.
In what way did Roman art differ from Greek art?
Roman art was more realistic and practical. Also, used for public education.
What influence did Latin have on the development of Western languages?
Latin was the basis of most of the Western languages and many of its words were adopted into other languages
Which principle of law do you think has been Rome’s greatest contribution to modern legal systems?
(la mia risposta: All persons had the right to equal treatment under the law)
Describe how the world might be different if Rome had not existed.
(ma réponse: Without Rome we might still be trying to figure out proper law codes, and English, French, Spanish, Italian etc. might not exist.)
What is a republic?
A government in which public officials represent the people.
What is a patrician?
The wealthy landowners who held most of the power. Also known as, members of the aristocracy or the senate.
What is a plebeians?
The common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population. (common citizens)
What are tribunes?
Tribunes are official representatives voted by the assembly of plebeians.
YOU GOTTA KNOW THIS:
What is a consul?
They commanded the army and directed the government: overrule, or veto etc. A consul’s term is only one year and the same person could not be elected consul again for ten years. (there were two official consuls, they were like kings)
YOU GOTTA KNOW THIS TOO:
What is the senate?
The aristocratic branch of Roman’s government. It had both legislative and administrative functions in the republic. The senate exercised great influence over both foreign and domestic policy. These were the patricians.
What is a dictator?
A leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. A dictator’s power lasted for 6 months. Chosen by the consuls and elected by the senate.
What was the legion?
Rome’s Army. Roman soldiers were organized into large military units called legions.
What were the Punic Wars?
Three wars between Rome and Carthage. 1st War) control of Sicily and western Mediterranean. 2nd War) Hannibal was the mastermind behind everything fight over Italian peninsula. 3rd War) control over Carthage. Rome won every war
Who was Hannibal?
Hannibal was the mastermind behind one of the Punic Wars and fought with a new risk, but daring strategy. To go around his opponent and attack at the back where they were least expecting it.
What is civil war?
A conflict between groups within the same country.
Who is Julius Caesar?
A military leader who dominated Rome and strengthened Rome’s economy, military, social, and political stuff.
What is a triumvirate?
A type of government that is ruled by three rulers.
Who is Augustus?
Another supreme military leader during the peak of Rome’s power who glorified Roman empire and created a system of government that survived for centuries. (Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian, changed his name)
What is Pax Romana?
The period of peace and prosperity. “Roman peace”
Who is Jesus?
A Jew who was born in Bethlehem and was the Messiah “the savior”. He spread, taught, and preached Christianity. He did good works and performed many miracles. He emphasized God’s personal relationship to each human being.
Who are the apostles?
Jesus’ 12 disciples/pupils.
Who is Paul?
A man who had an enormous influence on Christianity’s development. He spent the rest of his life, after the vision, spreading and interpreting Jesus’ teachings. (extra info: Paul was against Christianity at first, but one day he had a vision of Jesus, which changed his view.)
What is diaspora?
Dispersal of Jews
Who is Constantine?
Constantine was a Roman emperor who officially approved Christianity and gave all his credits to God. (who was fighting over Roman’s empire with another person. Before his big battle he had a vision of a cross and prayed for divine help. He had every soldier paint a cross on their shield. Constantine won the battle, which made him officially approve Christianity.)
What is a bishop?
A priest who supervised several local churches.
Who is Peter?
One of the apostles, who became the first bishop and the first pope. Jesus referred to him as the “rock” of Christianity.
What is a pope?
The father or head of the Christian Church.
What is inflations?
The value of money decreases coupled with an increase in price for goods.
Who are mercenaries?
Foreign soldiers who fought for money.
Who was Diocletian?
A strong-willed army leader who became the new emperor. He split the empire and fixed prices on goods to maintain Rome for longer.
What was Constantinople?
Rome’s new capital city, in Greece the eastern side.
Who was Attila?
A powerful chieftain who lead the huns into battle against the Germanic’s and Western Rome.
What is Greco-Roman culture?
It is a mixing of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture. Also known as the “classical” culture.
What was Pompeii?
A Roman town that had best examples of Roman paintings and was covered in a thick layer of ash, which killed many people but preserved many buildings and works of art.
A major contribution of the Roman Republic to Western European culture was the
A). concept of government by laws
B). belief that political power should be controlled by the military
C). establishment of agricultural communes
D). Rejection of the concept of slavery
A). Concept of Government Laws
The political system of the Ancient Roman Empire was characterized by
A). a strong central government
B). Rule by a coalition of emperors and religious leaders
C). Voting by all women and men (universal suffrage) in national elections
D). A strict adherence to constitutional principles
A). A strong central government
An immediate result of the fall of the Roman Empire was
A). A renewed interest in education and the arts
B). A period of disorder and weak central government
C). An increase in trade and manufacturing
D). The growth of cities and dominance by the middle class
B). A period of disorder and weak central government
Rome’s geographical location was advantageous because
A). it was on a river
B). It was in the middle of peninsula
C). It was near the Mediterranean Sea
D). All of Above
D). All of Above
After the fall of Rome, the eastern portion of the Roman Empire became known as the
A). Persian Empire
B). Byzantine Empire
C). Mongol Empire
D). Gupta Empire
B). Byzantine Empire
The remarkable growth of early Christianity reflected the new faith’s appeal particularly to
A). Roman emperors
B). High ranking officials and the wealthy elite
C). Roman soldiers and military officers
D). The lower classes
E). All of the Above
D). The lower classes
Who was head of the Christian Church?
C). the pope
E). none of the above
C). The pope
In Caesar’s time, what modern country encompassed most of what was known as Gaul?
E). None of the Above
The three men who ruled Rome for ten years beginning in 59 BC were referred to as
E). None of the above
Octavian eventually came to be called “exalted one,” or
E). None of the above
Gladiators or professional fighters who often fought to the death in public contests were often drawn from
C). The senate
Who became the first Roman Emperor in 27 BC?
A). Marcus Aurelius
D). Julius Caesar
E). None of the Above
Under Constantine, the capital of the empire was moved from where to where?
A). Rome, Byzantium
B). Constantinople, Italy
C). Istanbul, Turkey
D). Carthage Rome
A). Rome, Byzantium
True of False: Rome and Carthage fought in the Punic Wars
True of False: Jesus emphasized a personal relationship between God and people
True of False: Plebeians were richer than patricians
True of False: The senate, consuls and the assembly were the three main parts of the government under the Roman republic.
True of False: Rome treated all conquered territory the same way and made all conquered people full citizens.
True of False: Augustus changed the Roman government by giving more power to the consuls.
False; he stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome, created a system of government that survived for centuries, and a civil service (paid people for managing affairs of government).
True of False: The apostle Paul encouraged the spread of Christianity through forced conversions.
False; interpreting Jesus’ teachings
True of False: The Christians were persecuted because they disobeyed Roman authority by refusing to worship Roman gods.
True of False: Women and slaves were allowed to vote
True of False: The mixing of Greek, Persian and Roman culture was known as Greco-Roman culture.
A government in which diverse culture, languages, kingdoms and countries are united under the rule of one leader.
Relating to ancient Greek or Latin literature, art, or culture.
Name three of the five most important principles of Roman law which endured to form the basis of legal system in many western countries today.
1). Everyone is equal under the law
2). You are innocent until proven guilty
3). Only actions are punishable, not thoughts
The triumvirate of Julius Ceasear, Crassus, and Pompey ruled Rome for 10 years before?
Ceasar and Pompey clashed and went to war.
The major power struggles in the early Roman republic were between
Members of the aristocracy and common citizens