Liberal Use of Assumptions 2. Ceteris Paribus – Everything else remains constant 3. Short Run – Long Run > Short Run is a time range within which output can be adjusted only by changing the amounts of variable inputs remain unchanged. > Long run is a time period that is long enough to permit changes in all inputs both fixed & variable. ** Fixed – constant/doesn’t change ** Variable – varies 4. The Use of Graph
Rationing Device 3. Competition Four Economic Resources Capital – physical or human capital Land – natural resources (surface | beneath) Labor – blue collar or white collar – is an effort – human skills Entrepreneur – 4 functions: > Initiative > Business Policy > Innovator > Risk Taker 1. Availability of Resources Products > Goods – tangible > Services – intangible Two Parties – producer
Level of Production Two Approaches – Mkt. Aggregation (macro) – Mkt. Segmentation (micro) 3. Manner, Methods and Techniques Procedure of Productions 3 Methods a. Capital – Intensive (capital > labor) b. Labor – Intensive (labor > capital) c. Intermediate – Production (capital = labor) 4. Target Clients / Customer 2 Methods a. Direct (modern) Networking and Direct Selling b. Indirect (traditional) Manufacturer ? Advertiser ? Wholesaler ? Retailers ? Consumer 5. Price – reasonable Profitable ? Producers ? Profit ? Cost Affordable ? Consumers ? Cost Basic Economic Activities 1.
Production Inputs ? Procedures ? Outputs Classification of Products 1. Basic 2. Luxury 3. Public 4. Free 5. Economic Needs 2. Distribution – Reach Two Methods of Distribution a. Non-conventional – cheapest but slowest b. Conventional – expensive but fast 3. Exchange Barter Sytem Medium of Exhange Legal Tender – Philippine peso Non-legal tender – Foreign currency he technical terminology or characteristics idiom of a special activity or group. Communication Barrier 1. Poor word choice 2. Differing connotations 3. Inappropriate inferences (conclusions) 4. Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation and sentence structure 5. Wrong type of message 6. Poor appearance of the sender of the oral message 7. Poor appearance of written message 8. Distracting environmental factors 9.
Receiver incapable of receiving message 10. Poor listening 11. Lack of interest 12. Lack of knowledge needed to understand 13. Different cultural perceptions 14. Language difficulty 15. Emotional state 16. Bias SOCIOLOGY Capacity to shift from one perspective to another Self-experience ? wider society Self-centric views ? acceptance and understanding of others History of Sociology 19th century French revolution * democratic views starts to sprung Industrialization * capitalist vs. laborers * rise of machinery * social-problems – Scientific revolution Pioneers of Sociology 1. Auguste Comte Father of sociology
Coined the term socio(companion) and logy(study) 2. Herbert Spencer “Society is a product of evolution” Social Darwinism influenced him Sociobiologist were not accepted in modern society 3. Karl Marx Employed sociological inquiry with himself Conflict perspective History of the have and have nots 4. Emile Durkheim Father of Modern Sociology Social facts The degree of social integration 5. Max Weber Contradicting the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx Social interaction concept “rise of Protestantism was a major contributor to the progress of capitalism and industrialization” Culture – way of life
Material and Non-material culture Beliefs and traditions Modern/popular culture – personality Social Perspectives: 1. Social Funtionalist Theory – Functionalists believe that society is held together by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole. 2. Social Interaction Theory (symbolic interactionalism – which focuses on how people act according to their interpretations of the meaning of their world. 3. Social Conflict theory – which focuses on the negative, conflicted, ever-changing nature of society. THEOLOGY Living Like Jesus
The Jesus of history and of being human Living like Jesus is COMPLICATED and PROBLEMATIC because of his supernatural state It is a HUGE responsibility to live like him FOUR R’s 1. Rebel A non-conformist; who do not abide He was defiant He was extraordinary because of his differing beliefs 2. Reformist A person who goes for something better 3. Revolutionary A dreamer and an active worker Doesn’t leave anything to chance Never works alone 4. Radical Who do not think and act like the rest Someone who challenges a particular order Jesus was RADICAL-MINDED, LIBERAL-MINDED and PRACTICAL-MINDED Liberating A HERO who is DARING
A carpenter Analytical Pragmatic Innovator Jesus’s time Gross injustice that was fed by monstrous greed Impoverished sufferings Patriarchal culture Jesus was BREAKTHROUGH-MINDED Broke away from the way people think during his time MORALITY – value Something that is important to us Actions are always a product of choices Exclusive to human actions Human beings are rational beings Reasoning is a product of intelligence 3 Font principles of Christian Morality 1. Person 2. Context 3. Acts and Consequences Order means survival Survival is everybody’s interest Society comes together to create a system of support
If one’s freedom ends, somebody’s freedom begins Co-existence demands Respect Christianity is a success story Thought-fullness People find ways to co-exist with one another People make agreement and collective decisions to have ORDER in the community Order is beauty and beauty is life ** Schechems, Samaria At the well of Schechem he met a woman Ostrasize – excluded/isolated; nobody relates to you ** The Rational being is the Moral Being Base from FREEDOM A moral person is someone who is free to do what he/she likes(chooses to do) for as long as he/she does not infringe Infringe – violates the freedom of others
Freedom is not absolute Responsible Freedom – freedom is a responsibility Penology “penal” ENGLISH Business English Communicative Competence Knowledge of the Language Ability to use the Language Writing Speaking Listening Reading Tasks: 1. Types of Letters 2. “Simulated Company” Name Logo Slogan/motto Nature of Business Vision/Mission 3. Business Application Letter Curriculum Vitae Bio-data Resume Standard Formal English No errors No contractions Correct tenses Diction Mechanics Spelling Abbreviations Capitalizations Syllabications Punctuations ** Simulation – business / company – Social Responsibility
The month, day, and year the letter is typed. 2. Inside Address. – The name and address of the person to whom the letter is being sent. 3. Salutation. – An opening greeting such as Dear Ms. Jones. 4. Body. – The text of the letter. 5. Complimentary Closing. – A closing to the letter such as Sincerely or Yours truly. 6. Signature. – The writer’s signature. 7. Writer’s Identification. – The writer’s typed name and address. FILIPINO Masining / Malikhaing Pagpapahayag Inilipat sa GEC s2004 Dating Retorika na ayon sa CHED memo #59, s1996
Mga Paksa: 1. Kalikasan at simula ng Retorika 2. Masining na pagpapahayag (pasulat at pasalita) 3. Kritikal na pagbasa sa mga sulatin 4. Pagsulat ng 4 na uri ng pagpapahayag Pagsasalaysay Paglalarawan Paglalahad Pangangatwiran 2 uri ng Pagpapahayag: 1. Traditional 2. Conventional (makabago) Talambuhay: 1. Talambuhay ng sarili 2. Talambuhay ng ibang tao Paksa: 1. Paksa 2. Pagkalap ng impormasyon 3. Pagbabalangkas 4. Pagbasa 5. Muling pagsulat 6. Publikasyon/paglilimbay Paraan – istilo, wika , karakter, angkop sa bumabasa, angkop sa tema, paglalarawan ng karakter Dipinisyon 1.
Maanyong Dipinisyon – uri/klase 2. Dipinisyong Pasanaysay – Kontrasyon ** Retorika – magaling na tagapagsalita Classical Greek Rethoric 1. Corax – Ama ng Greek Rhetoric Bahagi ng Talunmpati 1. Proem 2. Narrative/Narration 3. Statement of Argument 4. Refutation/opposing argument 5. Summary/Conclusion ** Proem – pagpapakilala sa nilalaman ng talumpati ** Summary – buong punto o buod ng paksa 2. Tisias – estudyante ni Corax Bahagi ng Talumpati 1. Prologue 2. Narrative 3. Argument 4. Epilogue ** Prologue – pagkuha sa atensyon ng takapakinig habang sinasabi ang introduksyon 3. Aristotle
Bahagi ng Talumpati 1. Exordium 2. Narratio 3. Divisio (argument) 4. Confirmatio (affirmative) 5. Confutatio (refutation) 6. Conclusio ** Exordium – pagkakaroon ng interaksyon sa tagapagsalita at sa takapakinig mula sa introduksyon Medieval Rhetoric 1. Cicero 5 Canons of Rhetoric 1. Inventio (invention) 2. Despositio (arrangement) 3. Elocotiu (style) 4. Memoria (memory) 5. Action (delivery) ** Inventio – paksa, audience, sitwasyon ** Despositio – balangkas ** Elocotiu – figures of speech ** Memoria – kaisipan 2. Quintillian “Good man speaking well” Karakter ng isang speaker Tinaguriang Roman Wiseman
Tertullian Unang nagtranslate ng Holy Scripture Ama ng Latin Christianity Nagsulat ng Latin Christian Literature Nag-introduce sa Holy Trinity 4. Lucian Satirist Native speaker ng barbarian 5. Hermogenes Griyegong rhetoric Legal documents Ang retorika ay ang pagkakaroon ng mahusay na pagsasalita 6. Capella Prose Narrative Didactic method 7. St. Augustine 8. Cassiodorous Letter writing 9. Isidore Encyclopedia of Human Knowledge Dialectic approach 10. Al Quin Parliamentary Procedure Civic 11. Bede Poetry / poetic way of writing 12. Nother Labeo Latin ? German Literature 13. Boethius