One concern of experimental programs is when control groups believe they have received a treatment and act accordingly, which is known as the __________.
Both fixed-sample panel and repeated measures panel designs: Does this before-and-after design qualifies or does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design?
____________ in experimental research removes the operation of systematic bias from the assignment process
Nonequivalent control group and Ex-post facto control group designs are examples of:
Pretests provide a direct measure of change over time: is this statement about the value of pretests in experiments accurate or not accurate?
Selection bias, External events, Contamination, and Endogenous change are source of
Random assignment _________was present or not present in Colbert, Paternoster, and Bushway’s (2002) experiment on the effects of legal counsel at detainees’ bail hearings?
_________ is when either the experimental group or the comparison group is aware of the other group and is influenced in the posttest as a result.
Multiple group before-and-after design: Does this before-and-after design qualifies or does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design?
The features of experimental designs that make them so useful for establishing causation:
Reduce the sample generalizability of a study
Random assignment, Control group, and Pretest and are required or not required for a true experiment.
The __________ occurs when a subject or group of subjects changes their behavior due to the fact that they are being observed.
Experiments often use volunteers as subjects and are conducted in carefully controlled settings. This is likely to have the consequence of:
Increasing causal validity and decreasing generalizability
Multiple pretest and post-test measures are valuable in before-and-after designs because they decrease the possibility of internal invalidity due to:
A randomized field experiment is designed to test the usefulness of a new DNA test for solving crimes. Not using this new DNA test to solve crimes during the experiment may be ethically justifiable when:
Citizens do not know about the new DNA test
Repeated measures panel design: Does this before-and-after design qualifies or does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design?
A randomly assigned comparison group can provide a good estimate of the __________.
The pretest must occur the same length of time before treatment as the posttest occurs after treatment: is this a requirement or not a requirement for the pretest in an experiment?
Not a Requirement
The key feature of a quasi-experimental design that distinguishes it from a nonexperimental design is a comparison group ____________ to the treatment group in critical ways.
______________designs have a pretest and a posttest but no comparison group.
The __________ design can overcome the interaction of testing and treatment to increase external validity.
In an experiment, the group of subjects that receives the treatment or experimental manipulation is the __________.
Pretest _________was present or not present in Colbert, Paternoster, and Bushway’s (2002) experiment on the effects of legal counsel at detainees’ bail hearings?
Random assignment reduces the risk of selection bias but does not eliminate it. The risk remains because of __________________.
The pretest must be given only to the comparison group, not to the experimental group: is this a requirement or not a requirement for the pretest in an experiment?
Not a Requirement
Experimental and control groups _________was present or not present in Colbert, Paternoster, and Bushway’s (2002) experiment on the effects of legal counsel at detainees’ bail hearings?
___________assignment eliminates systematic bias.
The reason that ex-post facto control group design should be considered nonexperimental rather than quasi-experimental is that: People may __________ ___________ for participation in the treatment group
A researcher conducts a study on the effectiveness of a new prisoner rehabilitation program. All of the elements of an experiment are present except that the groups were not randomly assigned. This study is an example of a/an:
Nonequivalent control group design
Pretests permit verification of successful randomization: is this statement about the value of pretests in experiments accurate or not accurate?
Even when random assignment works, groups can differ over time because of __________.
When members of the treatment group change because their participation in the study makes them feel special is referred to as:
A Hawthorne effect
Post test _________was present or not present in Colbert, Paternoster, and Bushway’s (2002) experiment on the effects of legal counsel at detainees’ bail hearings?
Pretests provide a picture of the conditions in which the intervention had an effect: is this statement about the value of pretests in experiments accurate or not accurate?
Treatment _________was present or not present in Colbert, Paternoster, and Bushway’s (2002) experiment on the effects of legal counsel at detainees’ bail hearings?
The pretest cannot refer to the treatment to be tested: is this a requirement or not a requirement for the pretest in an experiment?
Not a Requirement
A time series (repeated measures) design is a type of:
__________ can cause groups to differ over time.
The ________________ is the outcome that would have occurred if the subjects had not been exposed to the treatment, but had otherwise equal experiences.
__________________ is the extent to which a treatment effect (or noneffect) is applicable across subgroups within an experiment and/or across different populations or times or settings.
In the __________________ design, the groups are not created by random assignment and are designated after the treatment or intervention has occurred.
ex-post facto control group
Since social programs are delivered by human beings, ___________ can be very difficult to control.
Causal validity is threatened by __________________ when variation in the treatment is associated with variation in the observed outcome, but the change occurs through a process that the research has not identified.
How do randomization and random sampling differ?
In increasing causal validity or generalizability
__________ surveys maximize generalizability.
Randomization in an experimental design allows for much stronger evidence of _____________ than is the case in nonexperimental designs.
An experiment’s ability to yield valid conclusions about _________is determined by the comparability of its experimental and comparison groups
Causal validity is also known as __________.
If Matthew scores very low on the pretest but improves on the posttest, his change in scores may be due to a ____________ effect instead of a treatment effect.
Pretests provide a required baseline picture for identifying treatment outcomes: is this statement about the value of pretests in experiments accurate or not accurate?
The more carefully controlled the conditions are for the experimental and comparison groups, the less likely it becomes that ____________ will invalidate the causal conclusions of an experiment.
In the process of conducting an experiment, a researcher administers a survey before the treatment is applied, in order to provide a baseline against which to judge the results. This survey is a:
Testing, Maturation, and Regression are examples of _________ changes with specific threat to internal validity.
The best alternative to an experimental design is a __________ design.
Fixed-sample panel design: Does this before-and-after design qualifies or does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design?
Does not qualify
If the results from a study can be successfully applied to the population at large, the study has __________.
Double-blind procedures are often used to hide the expectations of the experimenters in order to prevent a form of bias known as the __________.
The pretest must be the same as the posttest: is this a requirement or not a requirement for the pretest in an experiment?
As a general rule, _______ experimental research design is best able to produce results with strong internal validity but weaker generalizability?
The threat of testing as a source of internal invalidity in experiments occurs when there is
A pretest but not a comparison group
Before-and-after designs are distinguished from other quasi-experimental designs by the absence of a:
Traditional comparison group
A researcher conducts an experiment in which she does not know which participants receive the treatment program and which receive the control program. This is an example of:
A double-blind procedure
A worthwhile, conservative strategy for minimizing the possibility of invalid causal conclusions due to differential attrition is basing the outcome analysis on:
Comparing all subjects initially assigned to each condition
The key feature of an experimental design that distinguishes it from a quasi-experimental design is the:
Random assignment to two or more groups
_________ ____________ is a potential source of internal invalidity when subjects develop during the experiment as part of an ongoing process independent of the treatment
Pretests provide an alternative to a comparison group in quasi-experiments: is this statement about the value of pretests in experiments accurate or not accurate?
A __________fares better in achieving generalizability than a true experiment.
Time series design: Does this before-and-after design qualifies or does not qualify as a quasi-experimental design?
When experimental group members change because they feel special simply for being in the experiment, they are experiencing the_________:
The design components of a true experiment make it difficult to achieve:
When matching is used to assign subjects to an experimental and a comparison group, the resulting research design is _______________ by the possibility of additional differences between the groups