amplitude
For a wave, what term is defined as the maximum height of a crest, or depth of a trough, relative to the normal level?
wavelength
For a wave, what term is defined as the distance between two successive crests or two successive troughs?
period
For a wave, what term is defined as the time elapsed between two successive crests, or two successive troughs, passing by the same point in space?
The distance between successive crests decreases.
The frequency of a wave increases. If the speed of the wave remains constant, what happens to the distance between successive crests?
longitudinal wave
When the oscillation of the particles in a medium is parallel to the direction of the wave’s motion, what type of wave is this?
Destructive interference occurs.
Two wave pulses pass each other on a string. The pulse traveling toward the right has positive amplitude, whereas the pulse traveling toward the left has equal amplitude in the negative direction. What happens when they occupy the same region of space at the same time?
The length of the string is equal to one-half of a wavelength.
A standing wave is established on a string that is fixed at both ends. If the string is vibrating at its fundamental frequency, how is the length of the string related to the wavelength of the standing wave?
The loudness of a sound is related it its amplitude.
The pitch of a sound is determined by its frequency.
Which of the following statements are true?
The loudness of a sound is related it its amplitude.
Sound is a transverse wave.
The speed of sound is constant.
Sound can travel through a vacuum.
The pitch of a sound is determined by its frequency.
The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the product of the masses of the two objects.
The gravitational force between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two objects.
Gravitational force
The gravitational force increases by a factor of 4.
Two objects attract each other gravitationally. If the distance between their centers decreases by a factor of 2, how does the gravitational force between them change?
The gravitational force increases by a factor of 4.
Two objects attract each other gravitationally. If the mass of each object doubles, how does the gravitational force between them change?
The acceleration due to gravity is g/27
A hypothetical planet has a mass one-third of and a radius three times that of Earth. What is the acceleration due to gravity on the planet in terms of g, the acceleration due to gravity on Earth?
The mass of planet B is four times the mass of planet A.
Two planets, planet A and planet B, have the same surface gravity. However, planet B has twice the radius of planet A. How does the mass of planet B compare to the mass of planet A?
Earth’s orbital speed is greater when it is closer to the Sun than when it is farther from the Sun.
Earth’s orbit around the Sun is slightly elliptical. Thus, Earth actually gets closer to the Sun during part of the year. What happens to Earth’s orbital speed when it is closer to the Sun?
The planet’s orbital period will be one-half Earth’s orbital period
A planet is discovered orbiting around a star in the galaxy Andromeda at the same distance from the star as Earth is from the Sun. If that star has four times the mass of our Sun, how does the orbital period of the planet compare to Earth’s orbital period?
The Sun is located at one of the foci of the planets’ elliptical orbits.
The path of the planets around the Sun is elliptical in shape.
Which of the following statements are true?
The Sun is located at one of the foci of the planets’ elliptical orbits.
The path of the planets around the Sun is circular in shape.
The path of the planets around the Sun is elliptical in shape.
The Sun is located at the center of the of the planets’ circular orbits.
There is no component of force acting along the direction of motion of the satellite.
Why does a satellite in a circular orbit travel at a constant speed?
The launch speed of a satellite determines the shape of its orbit around Earth.
A satellite’s motion is independent of its mass.
Which of the following statements are true?
The launch speed of a satellite determines the shape of its orbit around Earth.
A geosynchronous satellite has a period of approximately 28 days.
A satellite’s motion is independent of its mass.
A satellite’s velocity and orbital radius are independent of each other.
The rod is subject to tensile stress.
A cylindrical rod has equal and opposite forces applied perpendicular to its circular ends. The forces are directed away from the rod, stretching the rod. What type of stress is this rod subject to?
The rod is subject to compressive stress
A cylindrical rod has equal and opposite forces applied perpendicular to its circular ends. The forces are directed toward the rod, compressing the rod. What type of stress is this rod subject to?
The rod is subject to shear stress.
A cylindrical rod has equal and opposite forces applied parallel to the surface of its circular ends. The forces are directed toward the center of the rod. What type of stress is this rod subject to?
The volume of the object decreases.
A gas-filled balloon is submerged in a fluid. As a result, the balloon is subject to inward forces from all sides. How does the volume of the balloon change?
The first wire will stretch the least.
Equal masses are suspended from two separate wires. The wires have identical lengths. The first wire has a larger cross-sectional area than the second wire. Which wire will stretch the LEAST?
Stress is characterized by the strength of the forces causing deformation, on a “force per unit area” basis
An object can experience both tensile and compressive stresses at the same time.
Two materials may have similar elastic constants but have vastly different breaking stresses.
Which of the following statements are true?
Choose all that apply.

Stress is characterized by the strength of the forces causing deformation, on a “force per unit area” basis.
The elastic modulus can be determined from the ratio of the strain to the stress.
An object can experience both tensile and compressive stresses at the same time.
Strain is characterized by the strength of the forces causing deformation, on a “force per unit area” basis.
Two materials may have similar elastic constants but have vastly different breaking stresses.

period
What term denotes the time for one cycle of a periodic process?
amplitude
For vibrational motion, what term denotes the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position?
Simple harmonic motion is periodic motion under the action of a restoring force that is directly proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
A system that undergoes periodic motion always has a stable equilibrium position.
Which of the following statements are true?
Check all that apply.

Simple harmonic motion is periodic motion under the action of a restoring force that is directly proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
Simple harmonic motion is periodic motion under the action of a restoring force that is inversely proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
A system that undergoes periodic motion never has a stable equilibrium position.
A system that undergoes periodic motion always has a stable equilibrium position.
All periodic motions are simple harmonic motions.

At maximum displacement, its instantaneous velocity is zero.
A mass on the end of a spring undergoes simple harmonic motion. At the instant when the mass is at its maximum displacement from equilibrium, what is its instantaneous velocity?
At maximum displacement, its instantaneous acceleration is also at maximum.
A mass on the end of a spring undergoes simple harmonic motion. At the instant when the mass is at its maximum displacement from equilibrium, what is its instantaneous acceleration?
At equilibrium, its instantaneous velocity is at maximum.
A mass on the end of a spring undergoes simple harmonic motion. At the instant when the mass is at its equilibrium position, what is its instantaneous velocity?
At equilibrium, its instantaneous acceleration is zero.
A mass on the end of a spring undergoes simple harmonic motion. At the instant when the mass is at its equilibrium position, what is its instantaneous acceleration?
The mass is located at either point A or B when its kinetic energy is at minimum.
The mass is located midway between points A and B when its kinetic energy is at maximum.
A mass is attached to a vertical spring. The mass exhibits simple harmonic motion between points A and B. Which of the following statements are true
The mass is located at either point A or B when its kinetic energy is at minimum.
The mass is located midway between points A and B when its potential energy is at maximum.
The mass is located midway between points A and B when its kinetic energy is at maximum.
The mass is located at either point A or B when its potential energy is at minimum.
The period is independent of the suspended mass.
A simple pendulum consists of a point mass suspended by a weightless, rigid wire in a uniform gravitation field. Which of the following statements are true when the system undergoes small oscillations? Check all that apply.
The period is proportional to the suspended mass.
The period is independent of the suspended mass.
The period is proportional to the length of the wire.
The period is independent of the length of the wire.
The period is inversely proportional to the length of the wire.
The period is inversely proportional to the suspended mass.
called damping.
The decrease in the amplitude of an oscillation caused by dissipative forces is
forced oscillation
An oscillation that is maintained by a driving force is called .
the lost mechanical energy is replaced.
In a mechanical system, the amplitude of an oscillation diminishes with time unless