Psychology Ch.7 (PRE)Mastering

declines in memory during middle age are most likely due to
stress and information overload
A _____ will always be expressed in the observable trait.
dominant gene
When you touch an infant’s cheek, he will turn toward your hand, open his mouth, and search for the nipple. This is known as the _____ reflex.
rooting
By the end of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage, infants have fully developed a sense of
object permanence
A research design in which one participant or group of participants is followed and studied over a long period of time is called a _____ design
longitudinal
Dizygotic twins
are more likely to occur in women taking fertility drugs
Erikson believes that during late adulthood, people engage in a process called
a life review
When the mass of cells does not completely split apart, the result is
conjoined twins
Humans have a total of _____ chromosomes in each cell of their bodies
46
The primary task of individuals facing Erikson’s stage of identity versus role confusion is to
develop values in life and beliefs concerning things such as political issues and career options
Which of the following is true about reflexes?
Some reflexes help infants to survive until they are capable of learning more complex means of interaction
Which of the following describes the relationship between heredity and environmental factors in determining development?
Genes and experience can affect each other
A researcher spends her entire career comparing the relative influences of heredity and environment on the development of alcoholism in men. This researcher works in the field of
behavioral genetics
Lizzie, age 12, regularly asks questions such as, “What if everyone just got along?” and, “If I became a medical researcher, I could find a cure for cancer?” According to Piaget’s theory, these questions suggest that Lizzie has acquired the ability to _____
think abstractly
A four-year-old watches her father pour liquid from a short, wide glass into a tall, thin glass. She believes that there is now more liquid in the tall glass than there was in the short glass. This is due to centration and
irreversibility
Olivia is in peak physical health. Her sense are sharp, and her cognitive abilities are mature. Olivia is most likely in which of the following age groups?
twenties
Sixteen-year-old Esmerelda often drinks several glasses of beer and then drives herself home. When her parents express worry that her drinking and driving will lead to an accident, Esmerelda responds, “That won’t happen to me. It only happens to other people.” Esmerelda’s thinking reflects
the personal fable
Seeing a dog for the first time, Kenetra — whose family owns a cat — points and says “cat” Piaget would say this is an example of
assimilation
Dr. Austin is studying the effects of aging on memory. She gives an initial test of memory to a group of 20-year-olds and a group of 40-year-olds. Then she follows both groups of participants for a period of five years, regularly giving them memory tests during that time. Which research design is Dr. Austin using?
cross sequential
adolescence refers to the period between
age thirteen and the early twenties
_____ may cause miscarriage and low birth weight for the developing embryo
caffeine
down syndrome is
a chromosome disorder
the cell resulting from fertilization is called a(n)
zygote
during the embryonic period, the embryo
becomes vulnerable to diseases the mother may have
during the intimacy versus isolation stage, Erikson saw the primary task to be
finding a mate

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