POLS1101-American Govt. Final 2013 Athens Tech College

culture wars
red states vs blue states
republican democracy
a form of govt in which the interests of the people are represented through elected leaders
federalists
favored strong national govt over strong state govts
antifederalists
favored strong state govts over strong national govt
pluralism
the idea that having a variety of parties and interests within a govt will strengthen the system, ensuring that no group possesses total control. belief that the interest group structure of American politics produces a reasonable policy balance
virginia plan
representation in the national legislature should be based on population
new jersey plan
each state should be given equal representation regardless of size
hamilton plan
state govts should be eliminated; no multiple levels of govt; all exist under same rules
south carolina plan
plan that kept the articles as they were with minor changes
connecticut plan
congress would be comprised of 2 houses. the state would have 2 senators for each state and the # of reps in the HOR would be based on population
power of purse
exclusive power granted to the congress-control over taxation and spending
elastic clause
congress has the power to pass all laws related to one of its expressed powers
judicial review
power the supreme court has to strike down laws/actions of other brances
unitary government
a system in which the national, centralized government holds ultimate authority. It is the most common form of government in the world.
confederal government
a form of government in which states hold power over a limited national government. This was the first form of government in the United States.
full faith and credit clause
art of Article IV of the Constitution requiring that each state’s laws be honored by the other states. For example, a legal marriage in one state must be recognized across state lines.
Privileges and immunities clause
part of Article IV of the Constitution requiring that states must treat nonstate residents within their borders as they would treat their own residents. This was meant to promote commerce and travel between states.
dual federalism
national and state governments are seen as distinct entities providing separate services. chief justice roger taney preferred this type of federalism
concurrent powers
areas of policy that are the shared responsibility of federal, state, and local governments
cooperative federalism
aka “marble cake federalism”. national and state governments work together to provide services efficiently
picket fence federalism
policy makers within a particular policy area work together across the levels of government
categorical grants
consist of federal aid to state or local governments that is provided for a specific purpose, such as a mass transit program within the transportation budget or a school lunch program within the education budget
block grants
consist of federal aid provided to a state government to be spent within a certain policy area, which the state can decide how to spend within that area.
unfunded mandates
federal laws that require the states to do certain things but do not provide state governments with funding to implement these policies
coercive federalism
a form of federalism in which the federal government pressures the states to change their policies by using regulations, mandates, and conditions (often involving threats to withdraw federal funding).
competitive federalism
a form of federalism in which states compete to attract businesses and jobs through the policies they adopt
sedition act
made it a crime to write, print, or publish any false, scandalous writings against the US govt
direct incitement test
protects threatening speech under the 1st amendment unless that speech aims to and is likely to cause imminent “lawless action”
prior restraint
a limit on freedom of the press that allows the govt to prohibit the media from publishing certain materials
gag order
allows the govt to prohibit the media from publishing anything related to an ongoing trial
miller test
supreme court uses a 3 part test to determine whether speech meets the criteria for obscenity
establishment clause
1st amendment states that congress cannot sponsor or endorse any particular religion
free exercise clause
congress cannot interfere in the practice of religion
lemon test
the supreme court uses this test to determine whether a practice violates the 1st amendment’s establishment clause
brady bill
mandated a background check and a 5 day waiting period for a handgun purchase
due process rights
the right to fair trial, right to consult a lawyer, freedom of self-incrimination, knowing what crime you are accused of, the right to confront the accuser in court, freedom from unreasonable police searches
magna carta
roots of the idea of due process come from this 1215 document
exclusionary rule
illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in criminal trial
miranda rights
the list of civil liberties that must be read to a suspect before anything the suspect says can be used in trial
criminal justice act
better legal representation for criminal defendants in federal court
federal speedy trial act
requires a trial to begin within 70 days of the defendants arrest for 1st appearance in court
caucus
face to face meeting in which rank-and-file party members discuss and vote on candidates to stand for election offices under the party label at a later general election
agenda-setting effect
extent to which the amount of media coverage of an issue affects the publics attention to and interest in that issue; reliance on those in power as source
democracy
system of government in which the ultimate political authority is vested in the people; rule by the people
oligarchy
denotes the rule of the few, usually an economic elite, in their own interest.
social contract theory
Argument identified with Hobbes and Locke that the legitimate origin of government is in the agreement of a free people.
American political development
The study of development and change in American political institutions, processes, and policies.
Aristocracy
For the ancients, aristocracy meant rule by the few, who were usually also wealthy, in the interest of the entire community. More broadly, aristocracy denotes the class of titled nobility within a society.
Classical liberalism
Doctrine identified with Hobbes, Locke, and Smith favoring limited government and individual rights. The dominant American political and social ideology in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Classical republicanism
Doctrine identified with Montesquieu and Hume that highlights concern for the common good over the self interest of individuals.
Democracy
Rule by the people. For the ancients, democracy meant popular rule, where the people came together in one place, in the interest of the community. More broadly democracy denotes political systems in which free elections to select public officials and affect the course of public policy.
Individualism
The idea that the people are the legitimate source of political authority and that they have rights which government must respect.
Institution
A custom, practice, or organization, usually embedded in rules and law, that define and structure social and political activity.
Monarchy
For the ancients, monarchy meant the rule of one man in the interest of the entire community. More broadly, monarchy denotes kingship or the hereditary claim to rule in a given society.
Oligarchy
For the ancients and more generally, oligarchy denotes the rule of the few, usually an economic elite, in their own interest.
Philosopher King
A term, closely identified with Plato, denoting ideal political leadership. The philosopher-king would know the true nature of justice and what it required in every instance.
Polis
Greek term for a political community on the scale of a city.
Polity
The general meaning of polity is political community. Aristotle used it to denote a political community in which the institutions of oligarchy and democracy were mixed to produce political stability.
Republic
A mixed state in which monarchical, aristocratic, and democratic principles are combined, usually with a strong executive and participation both by the few wealthy and the many poor in the legislature.
Secular
The nonreligious, this- worldly, everyday aspects of life.
Social contract theory
Argument identified with Hobbes and Locke that the legitimate origin of government is in the agreement of a free people.
“Necessary and proper” clause
The last paragraph of Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution, which states that Congress may make all laws deemed necessary and proper to carry into execution the powers specifically enumerated in article 1, section 8.
“Take-care” clause
Aricle 2, section 3, of the Constitution requires that the president “take care that the laws be faithfully executed.”
Advice and consent
Article 2, section 2, of the Constitution requires the president to seek the advice and consent of the Senate in appointing Supreme Court justices, senior officials of the executive branch, and ambassadors, and in ratifying treaties with foreign nations.
Annapolis Convention
Held in Annapolis, Maryland, in September 1786 to discuss problems arising from state restrictions on interstate commerce, it was a precursor to the Constitutional Convention.
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of a stronger national government who generally opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Articles of Confederation
Written in the Continental Congress in 1776 and 1777, the Articles outlining America’s first national government were finally adopted on March 1, 1781. The Articles were replaced by the United States Constitution on march 4, 1789.
Bicameralism
A two-house as opposed to a unicameral or one-house, legislature.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, proposed by the First Federal Congress and ratified by the states in 1791, were intended to protect individual rights and liberties from action by the new national government.
Boston Massacre
A clash on March 5, 1770 between British troops and a Boston mob that left five colonists dean and eight wounded.
Checks and Balances
The idea that governmental powers should be distributed to permit each branch of government to check and balance the other branches.
Confederation Congress
The Congress served under the Articles of Confederation from its adoption on March 1, 1781, until it was superseded by the new Federal Congress when the U.S. Constitution went into effect on March 4, 1789.
Constitutinal Convention
Met in Philadelphia between May 25 and September 17 and produced the U.S. Constitution. It is sometimes referred to as the Federal Convention or the Philadelphia Convention.
Continental Congress
Met in September 1774 and from May 1775 forward to coordinate protests against British policy and then revolution. The Continental Congress was superseded by the Confederation Congress when the Articles of Confederation went into effect on March 1, 1781.
Declaration of Independence
The document adopted in the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, to explain and justify the decision of the American colonies to declare their independence from Britain.
Declaratory Act
An act passed in Parliment in March 1766declaring that the British king and Parliment had the right to pass laws binding on the colonies in America “in all cases whatsoever.”
Enumerated powers
The specifically listed or enumerated powers of the Congress found in Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution. Seventeen specifically such as power to declare war, to levy taxes and to control commerce, and to raise armies and navies
Federalists
Supporters of a stronger national government who favored ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
Full faith and credit
Article 4 section 1 of the constitution requires that each state give “full faith and credit” to the legal acts of the other states.
Intolerable Acts
Acts passed in Parliament during the spring of 1774, in the response to the Boston Tea Party and similar events, to strengthen British administration of the colonies.
New Jersey Plan
A plan to add a limited number of new powers to the Articles, supported by most of the delegates from smaller states introduced into the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan.
Privileges and immunities clause
Article 4, section 2 of the Constitution guarantees to the citizens of each state the “privileges and immunities” of citizens of the several states.
Representative government
A form of government in which elected representatives of the people, rather than the people acting directly, conduct the business of government.
Republican government
Mixed or balanced government that is based on the people but may retain residual elements of monarchical or aristocratic privilege. Americans of the colonial period were particularly impressed with the example of republican Rome.
Separation of powers
The idea that distinctive types of governmental power, most obviously the legislative and the executive powers, and later the judicial power should be placed in separate hands.
Shays’s Rebellion
An uprising of Massachusetts farmers during the winter of 1786-87 convinced many Americans that political instability in the states required a stronger national government.
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from nine colonies met in New York City in October 1765 to coordinate their resistance to Parliment’s attempt to tax the colonies directly. They argued that only colonial legislature could levy taxes in the colonies.
Treaty-making power
Article 2, section 2, of the constitution gives the president, with the advice and consent of the Senate, the power to make treaties with foreign nations.
Virgina Plan
Outline of a strong national government, written by Virginia’s James Madison and supported by most of the delegates from the large states, that guided early discussion in the Constitutional Convention.
Block grants
Federal funds made available to states or communities in which they have discretion over how the money is spent within the broad substantive area covered by the block grant.
Categorical grant
A program making federal funds available to states and communities for a specific, often narrow, purpose and usually requiring a distinct application, implementation and reporting procedure.
Coercive federalism
A pejorative term to describe the federalism of the 1960s and the 1970s suggesting that the national government was using its financial muscle to coerce states into following national dictates as opposed to serving local needs.
Concurrent majority
South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun’s idea for restoring balance between the North and South by giving each region the right to reject national legislation thought harmful to the region.
Concurrent powers
Powers, such as the power to tax, that are available to both levels of the federal system and may be exercised by both in relation to the same body of citizens.
Confederation
Loose governing arrangement in which separate republics or nations join together to coordinate foreign policy and defense but retain full control over their domestic affairs.
Cooperative federalism
Mid-twentieth century view of federalism in which national, state, and local governments share responsibility for virtually all functions.
Creative federalism
1960s view of federalism that refers to LBJ’s willingness to expand the range of federal programs to support state and local activities and to bring new, even nongovernmental, actors to the process.
Devolution
The return of political authority from the national government to the states beginning in the 1970s and continuing today.
Dual federalism
Nineteenth-century view of federalism envisioning a federal system in which the two levels were sovereign in fairly distinct areas of responsibility with little overlap or sharing of authority.
Extradition
Provision of Article IV, section 2, of the U.S. Constitution providing that persons accused of a crime in one state fleeing into another state shall be returned to the state in which the crime was committed.
General revenue sharing
Program enacted in 1974, discontinued in 1986, that provided basically unrestricted federal funds to states and localities to support activities that they judged to be of highest priority.
Implied Powers
Congressional poweres not specifically mentioned among the enumerated powers, but which are reasonable and necessary to accomplish an enumerated end or activity.
Nullification
The claim prominent in the first half of the nineteenth century that states have the right to nullify or reject national acts that they believe to be beyond national constitutional authority.
Preemption
The Article VI declaration that national stautes are “the supreme law of the land” allows Congress to preempt or displace state authority in areas where they choose to legislate.
Reserved powers
The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that powers not explicitly granted to the national government are reserved to the states or to the people.
Secession
The claim that states have the right to withdraw from the Union.
Special revenue sharing
The Nixion administration developed block grants which bundled related categorical grants into a single block grant to enhance state and local discretion over how the money was spent.
Supremacy clause
Article VI of the U.S. Constitution declares that the acts of the national government within its areas of legitimate authority will be supreme over the state constitutions and laws.
Unitary government
Centralized government subject to one authority as opposed to a federal system that divides power across national and subnational (state) governments.
Affirm
Action of a higher court supporting the decision of a lower court
Affirmative action
Policies and actions designed to make up for the effects of past discrimination by giving preferences today to specified racial, ethnic, and sexual groups.
Amicus curiae briefs
Arguments filed with the court by parties interested in a case but not directly involved in it as contending parties. Amicus curiae is Latin meaning “Friend of the court”
Appellate jurisdiction
Substantive area in which a higher court may hear cases appealed from a lower court.
Appropriations committees
House and Senate committees that appropriate or allocate specific funding levels to each government program or activity
Authorizing committees
House and Senate committees that develop or authorize particular policies or programs through legislation
Block grants
Federal funds made available to states or communities in which they have discretion over how the money is spent within the broad substantive area covered by the block grant.
Briefs
Written arguments prepared by lawyers in a case outlining their view of the relevant law and the decision that should be rendered based on the law.
Casework
Refers to the direct assistance that members of Congress or their staff provide to their constituents who need something from a federal agency or department
Categorical grant
A program making federal funds available to states and communities for a specific, often narrow, purpose and usually requiring a distinct application, implementation and reporting procedure.
Civil code
Legal tradition that envisions a complete and fully articulated legal system based on clear statutes that lay out legal principles and commands in plain language that citizens can understand and obey.
Civil Law
The law dealing primarily with relations between individuals and organizations, as in marriage and family law, contracts and property. Violations result more in judgments and fines than punishment as such.
Civil liberties
Areas of social life, including free speech, press, and religion, where the constitution restricts or prohibits government intrusion on the free choices of individuals.
Civil rights
Areas of social life, such as the right to vote and to be free from racial discrimination, where the Constitution requires government to act to ensure that citizens are treated equally.
Cloture
A vote requiring a 60-vote majority, is the only way to half a filibuster in the Senate
Coercive federalism
A pejorative term to describe the federalism of the 1960s and the 1970s suggesting that the national government was using its financial muscle to coerce states into following national dictates as opposed to serving local needs.
Committee of the Whole
House convened under a set of rules that allows limitations on debate and amendment and lowers the quorum required to do business from 218 to 100 to facilitate speedier action
Common Law
Judge made law, as opposed to a fully integrated legal code developed over time as judges consider particular legal disputes and then future judges cite earlier decisions in resolving similar issues.
Concurrent majority
South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun’s idea for restoring balance between the North and South by giving each region the right to reject national legislation thought harmful to the region.
Concurrent powers
Powers, such as the power to tax, that are available to both levels of the federal system and may be exercised by both in relation to the same body of citizens.
Confederation
Loose governing arrangement in which separate republics or nations join together to coordinate foreign policy and defense but retain full control over their domestic affairs.
Conference committees
Committees composed of members of the House and Senate charged to resolve differences between the House and Senate versions of a bill
Confirmation hearing
Setting in which nominees for federal judicial posts appear before the Senate Judiciary committee to respond to questions from the members
Cooperative federalism
Mid-twentieth century view of federalism in which national, state, and local governments share responsibility for virtually all functions.
Courts of appeals
Thirteen courts that form the intermediate level of the federal judicial system and hear appeals of cases tried in the federal district courts.
Coverture
A legal concept, transferred to America as part of the Common Law, holding that upon marriage the husband and the wife became “one person, and that person the husband.”
Creative federalism
1960s view of federalism that refers to LBJ’s willingness to expand the range of federal programs to support state and local activities and to bring new, even nongovernmental, actors to the process.
Criminal law
Prohibits certain actions and prescribes penalties for those who engage in the prohibited conduct
Cruel and unusual punishment
The Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits “cruel and unusual punishment.” Historically, this language prohibited torture and other abuses. Today the key question is whether the death penalty should be declared to be cruel and unusual punishment.
Delegate
A view of representation that sees the representative’s principal role as reflecting the views and protecting the interests of his or her own constituents
Devolution
The return of political authority from the national government to the states beginning in the 1970s and continuing today.
Direct discrimination
Discrimination practiced directly by one individual against another.
District courts
The ninety-four general trial courts of the federal judicial system
Dual federalism
Nineteenth-century view of federalism envisioning a federal system in which the two levels were sovereign in fairly distinct areas of responsibility with little overlap or sharing of authority.
Establishment clause
The First Amendment to the Constitution says that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion”. This clearly means that Congress may not establish a national religion. There is an ongoing debate over how much, if any, contact is allowed between religion and government.
Exclusionary rule
The exclusionary rule holds that evidence illegally obtained by police cannot be used in court. The Supreme Court established the exclusionary rule in regard to the federal authorities in Weeks v. U.S. (1914) and in regard to state authorities in Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Extradition
Provision of Article IV, section 2, of the U.S. Constitution providing that persons accused of a crime in one state fleeing into another state shall be returned to the state in which the crime was committed.
Filibuster
Senators enjoy the right of unlimited debate. Use of unlimited debate by a senator to stall or block passage of legislation is called a filibuster
Free exercise clause
The First Amendment to the Constitution, immediately after saying that Congress may not establish religion, says congress may not prohibit the “free exercise” of religion. The intent of the free exercise clause is to protect a wide range of religious observance and practice from political interference.
General revenue sharing
Program enacted in 1974, discontinued in 1986, that provided basically unrestricted federal funds to states and localities to support activities that they judged to be of highest priority.
Gerrymander
Refers to the strange shape of some congressional districts that result when parties draw districts intended to maximize their political advantage
Human rights
Fundamental rights to freedom and security that belong to all human beings
Implied Powers
Congressional poweres not specifically mentioned among the enumerated powers, but which are reasonable and necessary to accomplish an enumerated end or activity.
Incorporation
Incorporation is the idea that many of the protection of the Bill of Rights, originally meant to apply only against the national government, applied against the states as well because they were “incorporated” into the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantees of “due process” and “equal protection of the laws”
Jim Crow
The generic name for all the laws and practices that enforced segregation of the races in the American South and elsewhere fro the end of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century.
Joint committees
Congressional committees made up of members of both the House and the Senate and assigned to study a particular topic
Judicial activism
Active policy making by courts, especially in sensitive cases such as desegregation and abortion
Judicial restraint
The idea that courts should avoid policy making and limit themselves to implementing legislative and executive intent.
Judicial review
Power of any federal court to hold any law or official act based on law to be unenforceable because it is in conflict with the Consititution
Judiciary act of 1789
Originating act for the federal judiciary passed by the first Congress
Justiciability
Legal term indicating that an issue or dispute is appropriate for or subject to judicial resolution.
Law
Authoritative rules made by government and backed by the organized force of the community
Legislative supremacy
The idea that the lawmaking authority in government should be supreme over the executive and judicial powers
Nullification
The claim prominent in the first half of the nineteenth century that states have the right to nullify or reject national acts that they believe to be beyond national constitutional authority.
Obscenity
Sexually explicit material, whether spoken, written, or visual, that “taken as a whole…lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.”
Opinion
Written finding or decision of a court
Oral arguement
The opportunity in a case before the supreme court for the opposing lawyers orally to present their legal arguments.
Original jurisdiction
Mandatory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as laid out in Article 3 of the Constitution
Politico
A view of representation that sees representatives following constituent opinion when that is clear and his or her own judgement or political interest when constituency opinion is amorphous or divided
Popular sovereignty
The idea that all legitimate governmental authority comes from the people and can be reclaimed by them if government becomes neglectful or abusive
Pork barrel politics
refers to spending for specially targeted local projects, acquired by a congressman or senator outside the regular appropriations process
Precedent
A judicial decision that serves as a rule or guide for deciding later cases of a similar nature
Preemption
The Article VI declaration that national stautes are “the supreme law of the land” allows Congress to preempt or displace state authority in areas where they choose to legislate.
Prior restraint
Any limitation on publication requiring that permission be secured or approval be granted prior to publication. No prior restraint means no censorship or permission process that could hinder publication.
Reciprocity norm
Congressional norm promising that if members respect the views and expertise of members of other committees, their committee expertise will be respected as well
Redistricting
The redrawing of congressional boundaries after each census
Referral
The process by which a bill is referred or assigned to a standing committee for initial consideration
Remand
To send a case back to a lower court for further consideration
Reserved powers
The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that powers not explicitly granted to the national government are reserved to the states or to the people.
Reverse
Action by a higher court to overturn the decision of a lower court
Reverse discrimination
The idea that the provision of affirmative action advantages to members of protected classes must necessarily result in an unfair denial of benefits or advantages to white males.
Gideon v. Wainwright(1963)
declared that a person accused of a crime has the right to assistance of a lawyer in preparing his or her defense. The right to counsel is part of the mean of the Fourteeth Amendment’s guarantee of “due process of law” Right to counsel
Rule of four
Four justices must approve a write of certiorari before a case will be heart on appeal before the Supreme Court
Rules committee
Committee that writes rules or special orders that set the conditions for debate and amendment of legislation on the floor of the House
Secession
The claim that states have the right to withdraw from the Union.
Select committees
Temporary committees of the Congress that go out of business once they complete their work or at the end of each Congress unless specifically renewed
Self-incrimination
The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees that one cannot be compelled “to be a witness against himself”. Taking advantage of the right against self-incrimination is often called “taking the Fifth”.
Senatorial courtesy
Expectation that the president will clear federal district court judgeship appointments with senators of his party from the state in which the judge will serve
Seniority norm/principle
The norm that holds that the member of a congressional committee with the longest continuous service on the committee shall be its chair
Special revenue sharing
The Nixion administration developed block grants which bundled related categorical grants into a single block grant to enhance state and local discretion over how the money was spent.
Specialization norm
The norm that encourages Congress members to specialize and develop expertise in the subject matter covered by their committee assignments
Stare decisis
The judicial principle of relying on past decisions or precedents to devise rulings in later cases
Substantive due process
Late nineteenth century supreme court doctrine that held that most attempts to regulate property were violations of due process
Supremacy clause
Article VI of the U.S. Constitution declares that the acts of the national government within its areas of legitimate authority will be supreme over the state constitutions and laws.
Supreme court
the high court or court of last resort in the American judicial system
Symbolic speech
Speech-related acts, such as picketing or flag burning, that like actual speech are protected under the First Amendment because they involve the communication of ideas or opinions.
Trustee
A view of representation that says representatives should listen to their constituents but use their own expertise and judgement to make decisions about public issues
Unanimous consent
A legislative device by which the Senate sets aside its standard rules for a negotiated agreement on the order and conduct of business on the floor. Plays roughly the same role as rules or special orders in the House
Unitary government
Centralized government subject to one authority as opposed to a federal system that divides power across national and subnational (state) governments.
Unreasonable Searches and seizures
The Fourth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees that citizens will not be subject to unreasonable searches and seizures. Searches must be authorized by a warrant secured on probable cause that specific, relevant evidence is to be found if a particular place is searched.
Writ of certiorari
Judicial instrument that makes a formal request that a case be submitted for review by a higher court.
Appointment power
Article II, section 2, of the Constitution empowers the president, often with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint many senior government officials
Cabinet
The secretaries of the fifteen executive departments and other officials designated by the president. The Cabinet is available to consult with the president.
Electoral College
An institution created by the Federal Convention of 1787 to select the president. Each state has a number of votes equal to the number of its seats in the U.S. House of Representatives plus its two senators.
Executive agreements
Agreements negotiated between the president and foreign governments. Executive agreements have the same legal force as treaties but do not require confirmation by the Senate.
Executive Office of the President(EOP)
Established in 1939, the EOP houses the professional support personnel working for the president
Executive privilege
The right of presidents, recognized by the Supreme Court, to keep conversations and communications with their advisers confidential.
Impeachment
The process of removing national government officials from office. The house votes a statement of particulars of charges, and a trial is conducted in the Senate.
Inherent powers
Powers accruing to all sovereign nations, whether or not specified in the Constitution, allowing executives to take all actions required to defend the nation and protect its interests.
National Security Council (NSC)
Part of the executive Office of the President, established in 1947, that coordinates advice and policy for the president on national security issues.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Part of the Executive Office of the President that provides budgetary expertise, central legislative clearance, and management assistance to the president.
Pardon
Makes the recipient a new person in the eyes of the law as if no offense had ever been committed.
Reprieve
A temporary postponement of the effect of a judicial decision to give the Executive time to consider a request of a pardon.
Treaty-making power
Article II, section 2, of the Constitution gives the president, with the advice and consent of the Senate, the power to make treaties with foreign nations
Unitary executive theory
Strong presidency theory holding that the president embodies executive authority and is the sole judge, particularly in wartime, of what is required to protect the nation and its people
Veto power
The president has the right to veto acts of Congress. The act can still become law if both houses pass the bill again by a two-thirds vote
War Powers resolution
Passed in Congress in 1973 requiring the president to consult with Congress on the use of force and to withdraw U.S. forces from conflict should congressional approval not be forthcoming.
Administrative adjudication
Procedures designed to allow resolution of complex issues based on specific facts rather than general rules.
Administrative Procedures Act (APA)
Passed in 1946, the APA remains the single most important attempt by Congress to define the nature and process of bureaucratic decision making.
Bureaucracy
A hierarchical organization in which offices have specified missions and employees are assigned responsibilities based on merit, knowledge, and experience.
Civil service system
Rules governing the hiring, advancement, pay, and discipline of civilian federal employees
Implementation
The process of making a program or policy actually work day-to-day in the real world.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
First independent regulatory commission, established in 1887, to develop, implement, and adjudicate fair and reasonable freight rates.
Patronage
The awarding of political jobs or contracts based on partisan ties instead of merit or expertise
Pendleton Act
The Pendleton Act of 1883 was the original legislation establishing the civil service system
Regulatory Commissions
Commissions headed by bipartisan boards charged with developing, implementing, and adjudicating policy in their area of responsibility.
Rule making
Process of defining rules or standards that apply uniformly to classes of individuals, events, or activities
Spoils system
Patronage system prominent between 1830 and 1880 in which strong political parties struggled for control of Congress and the presidency with the winner taking the bureaucracy and its jobs as a prize.
Duverger’s law
Political scientist Maurice Duverger was the first to note that electoral rules influence party systems. Marjoitarian systems usually produce two-party systems, and proportional representation systems usually produce multiparty systems.
Initiative
Legal or constitutional process common in the states that allows citizens to place questions on the ballot to be decided directly by the voters.
Minor party
A party that raises issues and offers candidates but has little chance of winning and organizing the government
Party identification
The emotional and intellectual commitment of a voter to his or her preferred party
Party in government
The officeholders, both elected and partisan-appointed officials, who ran under or have been associated with the party label
Party in the electorate
The voters who identify more or less directly and consistently with a political party
Party-in-organization
The permanent structure of party offices and officials who administer the party apparatus on a day-to-day basis
Party primary
An election in which voters identified with a political party select the candidates who will stand for election under the party label in a subsequent general election
Party unity
Each year Congressional Quarterly reports the proportion of votes in the House and Senate on which a majority of one party lines up against a majority of the other party
Political pary
An organization designed to elect government officeholders under a given label
Presidential success
Each year Congressional Quarterly reports the proportion of votes in Congress on which the president took a clear position and Congress supported him
Recall
A legal or constitutional device that allows voters to remove an offensive officeholder before the normal end of his or her term
Referendum
A legal or constitutional device that allows state and local governments to put questions directly to the voters for determination
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
Commonly known as McCain-Feingold, teh 2002 BCRA was the first major revision of campaign finance laws since the early 1970s
Caucus
Face-to-face meeting in which rank-and-file party members discuss and vote on candidates to stand for election to offices under the party label at a later general election
Federal Electon Campaign Act (FECA)
Campaign reform legislation passed in 1971, with major amendments in 1974 and later, that required disclosure and set limits on campaign contributions, and provided public funding of presidential elections
General election
A final or definitive election in which candidates representing their respective parties contend for election to office
National party convention
The Democratic and Republican parties meet in national convention every four years, in the summer just prior to the presidential election, to choose a presidential candidate and adopt a party platform.
Primary
A preliminary election in which voters select candidates to stand under their party label in a later and definitive general election.
Soft money
Amendments to the FECA passed in 1979 allowed unlimited contribution to political parties, called soft money, for party building, voter registration, and voter turnout.
Suffrage
Another term for the legal right to vote
Voter registration
The process by which members of the voting-age population sign up, or register, to establish their right to cast a ballot on election day
Voter turnout
That portion of the voting-age population that actually turns up to vote on election day
Voting-age population
Total population over the age of eighteen
pocket veto
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
white house staff
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factions
groups of like-minded people who try to influence government
public goods
services or actions that, once provided to one person, become available to everyone
free rider problem
the incentive to benefit from other’s work without contributing that leads individuals in a collective action situation to refuse to work together. leads to the under provision of goods or services, or when it leads to overuse or degradation of a common property resource
positive externalities
the benefits from the good are shared by the primary consumer of the good and by society at large
free market
economic system based on competition between businesses without government interference
economic individualism
the autonomy of individuals to manage their own financial decisions without govt independence

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