PHIL 202 Exam 2

Who discovered
the method of resolution and composition?
A. Hobbes
B. Descartes
C. Locke
D. Calvin
A. Hobbes
John Locke wrote
___________
A. Essay Concerning
Human Religion
B. Essay Concerning
the Human Mind
C. Essay Concerning Human Understanding
C. Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Which of the following is not one of the experiences Locke described?
A. Sensation
B. Imagination
C. Reflection
Imagination
What is the
method of resolution and composition?
It is a method to better understand things. First through resolution the object is analyzed by all its smaller parts and then through composition it is understood how this parts work together.
According to Locke, which of the following is not a stage in the Law of Nature as concerns property?

A. Communal ownership.
B. Mixing labor with soil in a wasteful manner.
C. Money.
D. Money as capital.

B. Mixing labor with soil in a wasteful manner.
Which of the following is integral to Hobbes’ social contract?

A. Property.
B. Citizens revoking the right to punish criminals.
C. Government.
D. Freedom of will.

C. Government.
Which of the following is true?
A. Hobbes was a parliamentarian, and Locke was a royalist.
B. Locke was a parliamentarian, and Hobbes was a royalist.
C. Hobbes and Locke were both parliamentarians.
D. Hobbes and Locke were both royalists.
B. Locke was a parliamentarian, and Hobbes was a royalist.
T/F: Hobbes claims that in a state of nature men will live in harmony.
False
Explain Locke’s Law of Nature
We ought not to harm another person in their person, health, liberty, or property.
Hobbes states that
the source of all our thoughts is to be found in
A. Sensation
B. Reason
C. History
D. Interactions
A. Sensation
According to John Locke, which of the following is not one of the three heads
that classify complex ideas?
A. Modes
B. Relations
C. Methods
D. Substances
C. Methods
According to John Locke, what gives a man the idea of himself?
A. Sensations
B. Consciousness
C. Surroundings
D. God
B. Consciousness
How does Berkeley understand common sense? What two principles characterize what he might call common sense realism about the world?
Berkeley considers himself a defender of common sense against the stances of philosophers and scientists. He supports his stance with two principles. The first, is that things exist independently of our perceiving that they do. The latter, is that things have the qualities they seem to have (i.e. a rose we see is red, or a food we eat is sweet).
Hobbes’ view of reasoning tells us that reasoning in nothing but
A. Reckoning
B. Thinking
C. Discussing
D. Arguing
A. Reckoning
Hobbes believes that “of the voluntary acts of man, the object is some unto himself”
A. passion
B. good
C. happiness
D. desire
B. good
The contract that is the basis for government, as Locke envisages is between
A. people with each other
B. people with a sovereign
C. the free market and individuals
D. government leaders and religious leaders
A. people with each other
According to Berkeley, what are the two characterizations of common sense?
1. Things that exist independently of our perceiving that they do
2. Things have the qualities they seem to have: The rose we see is really red, the sugar on our tongue is really sweet, and the fire we approach is really hot.
T/F Berkeley believes that Locke doesn’t rigorously stick to his principle that the mind knows nothing but its own ideas; Berkeley is determined to be more consistent.
True
Which of the following does not describe the state of nature according to Hobbes?
A) Humans are egoist
B) Humans are irrational
C) Humans are relatively equal
D) There is a scarcity of resources
B) Humans are irrational
Locke’s Social Contract theory is the foundation of what modern political philosophy? Choose the most specific answer.
A) Conservatism
B) Libertarianism
C) Liberalism
D) Rationalism
B) Libertarianism
Hobbes is the defender of what school of thought? (choose the best answer)
A) Determinism
B) Individualism
C) Compatibilism
D) Humanism
C) Compatibilism
According to Locke, if we have a right to an End, we have the right to the Means to achieve that End. T/F
True
Explain the Prisoner’s Dilemma.
A) If both prisoners cooperate then they have the highest possible return, collectively. If one defects, then the defector has a high return, while the cooperator has a return of zero. If both defect, they have the minimal possible return. Unfortunately, society tends toward both defecting.
Thomas Hobbes and John Lock shared a commonality of beliefs in that:
A. Desires motivate action
B. God is incomprehensible and therefore doesn’t exist
C. Cheesecake is good for all human beings in the long run
D. Republicans rule democrat’s drool
A. Desires motivate action
John Locke believed we should get the Indians out of North America because:
A. He was straight up racist
B. He believed that the Indians were not using the Land efficiently
C. He had a sweet farm he wanted to set up back west in San Obispo California
D. None of the above
B. He believed that the Indians were not using the Land efficiently
What did Hobbs mean when he described society as being in a “State of nature?”

A. Everyone acts on his or her own desires without any legal or moral restraint
B. Everyone NATURALLY follows all the laws of the land without question
C. Everyone lives in a nudist colony, does yoga, and smokes marijuana all day
D. Everyone acts as they did in the pre-earth life

A. Everyone acts on his or her own desires without any legal or moral restraint
True or False, John Locke was an active feminist
False
What did John Locke mean when he said “subsistence farming?”
Subsistence farming is when property is based on mixing labor with soil, AKA not wasting property.
What kind of philosophy does Locke start
A. Stoicism
B. Intellectualism
C. Empricism
D. Realism
C. Empricism
Hobbes claims that in a state of nature human beings will be involved in:
A. War of all against all
B. Communal sharing of resources
C. Cooperative undertakings
D. American Football
A. War of all against all
In Locke’s theory of political philosophy, the object of government is to protect ______ rights.
A. Human
B. Property
C. Moral
D. Religious
B. Property
T/F Hobbes claims that pleasure and pain are the only motivations in human existence
True
Outline the differences between Hobbes and Locke’s social contract theory.
Hobbes’ theory is that human beings enter into a contract to limit each other’s power in order to be free of the fear of losing their happiness or felicity. They do so out of selfish interest and need a government to enforce this social contract.

Locke’s theory is that human beings have a natural law of fairness and justice that they strive to follow. However, they cannot be impartial judges when somebody else breaks the natural law. Their self interest or jealousies will make them rule unjustly. They form government to relieve themselves of the obligation of being judges for others. Government is beholden to the people and relies on the people for its power.

T/F: Newton thinks that we should form hypothesis.
False
Who said, “enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity?”
a. Hume
b. Kant
c. Newton
d. Descartes
Kant
Which of the following is NOT one of Newton’s two methods?
a. Analysis
b. Synthesis
c. Resolution
Resolution
Which of the following is NOT one of Hume’s three principles of connexion?
a. Relations
b. Resemblance
c. Contiguity
d. Cause or Effect
a. Relations
5. According to Hume what is the difference between an impression and an idea?
An impression is an initial sensation, passion, or emotion that we feel strongly. An idea is the faint image or memory of the impression. An example is to slap your hand on a table. The initial sound is an impression while recalling the sound is an idea.
What word did Hume use to describe all the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert?
a) data
b) Perceptions
c) associations
d) ideas
Perceptions
For Hume, an impression that was associated with an idea was called what?
a) Cause and Effect
b) forms and ideas
c) impressions and perceptions
d) datum and data
Cause and Effect
What is defined as “the view that human actions constitute no exception to the universal rule of causal law”?
a) nihilism
b) disestablishmentarianism
c) Determinism
d) naturalism
Determinism
T or F: Hume aimed to separate a belief in causality with a belief in human freedom?
False
In what ways was Hume’s approach similar to Newton’s?
Hume’s objective was to take Newton’s mechanical principles that govern the universe and apply them to human nature. Hume takes a scientific (and Newtonian) approach to dissecting human nature in order to figure out its roots and establish these basic principles of humanity. To do this, he breaks down our fundamental nature into an analysis of the elements of mind (impressions and ideas), the relation between them (dependence), and how the ideas themselves interact (association).
Empiricists receive knowledge thru:
A. the Bible
B. Senses
C. Experience
D. Customs
B. Senses
Bacon finds knowledge thru
A. counter examples
B. proving contradictions
C. via negativa
D. all of the above
D. all of the above
Locke’s law of nature is found:
A. engraven upon one’s heart
B. found through knowledge
C. found through exploration
D. engraven within one’s spirit
A. engraven upon one’s heart
T//F: Hobbes believes rational beings often seek the most rational decisions
False
True or False: According to Thomas Hobbes, living things are just matter in motion.
True
Which of the following best characterizes the theory of psychological egoism?
A. A moral theory that says that actions are morally right just because they maximize self-interest
B. The view that all human actions are motivated by self-interest and that altruism is impossible
C. The view that there are no objective moral standards
D. The branch of philosophy that discusses the nature of reality, what exists, and what does not exist.
B. The view that all human actions are motivated by self-interest and that altruism is impossible
Which of the following does NOT characterize the philosophical views of Thomas Hobbes?

A. He wants to resolve everything into matter and motion
B. He is unconvinced by Descartes’ arguments concerning the independence of the mind from the body
C. He thinks sense is the origin of all thinking
D. He rejects the idea that the motivation behind all action is desire. Instead, he argues that we are also motivated by reason.

D. He rejects the idea that the motivation behind all action is desire. Instead, he argues that we are also motivated by reason.
Which of the following pertains to Berkeley’s understanding of common sense

A. All events, including human actions, are subject to Galileo’s laws of motion
B. There are no ideas that have formal reality
C. God’s existence is self evident
D. Things have the qualities they seem to have

D. Things have the qualities they seem to have
Short answer question: Why, according to John Locke, should governments be tolerant of religious differences?
1. People with abnormal religious ideas are dangerous to civil order because they are oppressed by government for their different ideas
2. If government stops oppressing these people, these people will become loyal subjects.
3. Therefore, governments should stop oppressing people who hold non-mainstream religious views.
Francis Bacon believes that truth is:
a. Negative
b. Positive
c. Not possible
d. Obtained through induction
Negative
The Hobbesian state of nature is:
a. One of mutual cooperation
b. Unified states in conflict with one another
c. No interaction between individuals
d. War of all against all
d. War of all against all
Locke believes that in the state of nature, we are bound by:
a. The Law of Contradiction
b. The law of Nature
c. Divine Law
d. Law of Mutual Consent
b. The law of Nature
Hobbes’ political and religious views were influenced by the English Civil War: TRUE/FALSE
True
According to Hobbes, what is the state of nature like? What are Hobbes’ four characteristics of human nature and their result?
Hobbesian state of nature is a world with no government. Life is mean, nasty, brutish, and short. There is no trust between individuals, and because humans are rational, egoistic, and relatively equal (weakest are capable of killing strongest), and because there is a scarcity of resources, a war of all against all is the result.
Hume advances a philosophical program that can be categorized as:
a. Rationalism mixed with scholasticism
b. Scholasticism mixed with idealism
c. Skepticism mixed with realism
d. Empiricism mixed with skepticism
d. Empiricism mixed with skepticism
For Hume, the idea of causation is:
a. A habit of expecting one event to follow another
b. A necessary connection which one can observe
c. A necessary tie existing outside the mind
d. Hume does not suggest an explanation for causation
a. A habit of expecting one event to follow another
For Hume, ideas are:
a. Innate in the mind
b. Vivid and forceful perceptions
c. Copies of impressions
d. Governed by the law of contradiction
c. Copies of impressions
Hume posits that Matters of Fact are governed by the law of contradiction: True/False
False
Describe Hume’s two categories of perceptions and how they relate to one another
Hume breaks up perceptions into two categories—impressions and ideas. Impressions are vivid and forceful and are immediately present to us. Ideas are a more faint version of impressions and are made by copying an impression into an idea. All ideas are tied to an impression, if it is not, you cannot have an idea of it. Hume remains agnostic in regard to the cause of perceptions.
True or False: According to Hobbes, when an image is combined with a sign, he says we have misunderstanding
False
According to Hobbes a “hindering and troubling of the motion vital” is _________.
A. Pleasure
B. Pain
C. Good
D. Bad
Pain
Which of the following is not one of the idols that Bacon says have hindered the advance of knowledge?
A: Idols of the tribe
B. Idols of the adults
C. Idols of the marketplace
D. Idols of the theater
Idols of the adults
According to Locke, who instituted government to restrain the partiality and violence of men?
A. God
B. Man
C. Animals
D. Machines
God
Hobbes is a determinist. What is a determinist?
One who thinks that for every event, including all human actions, there is a set of sufficient conditions guaranteeing its occurrence.
Which of these is not one of Locke’s 3 types of complex ideas?

A. Modes
B. Essences
C. Relations
D. Substances

B. Essences
Which of these best explains Thomas Hobbes’ notion of human psychology?

A. Humans are egoistic
B. Humans are rational
C. Humans are relatively equal
D. All of the above

D. All of the above
According the Locke, the purpose of government is:

A. Unity of punishment
B. Unity of protection
C. Equal distribution of property among all citizens
D. A and B

D. A and B
According to Hobbes, “free will” is just the desire that turns into action. T/F
True
Explain Hobbes’ Prisoner’s Dilemma.
You have two people, A and B. There are four possible outcomes. They both cooperate and share their resources. Or A kills B or B kills A and gets ALL the resources of both. Or they both kill each other and neither get anything. Cooperation is the most ideal situation, but since humans are egoistic we naturally drift towards the last type of outcome where both parties defect and lose everything.
What is Hobbes’ method for the “key to progress” called?
A. resolution and explanation
B. analysis and explanation
C. resolution and composition
D. explanation and composition
C. resolution and composition
What is Hobbe’s view on substance?
A. he is a dualist like Descartes
B. he is a pluralist
C. he is a monist
D. he has no philosophy about substance
C. he is a monist
What marks the beginning of empiricism in philosophy?
A. Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding
B. Descarte’s Meditations
C. Berkeley’s The Principles of Human Knowledge
D. Spinoza’s Ethics
A. Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding
T/F- Berkeley wrote the Principles of Human Knowledge in agreement with Locke and to defend our natural belief in common sense.
False
Define ephiphenomenalist and give an example
An ephiphenomenalist thinks there are unique mental qualities, but that they are somewhat dependent on physical states and they do affect the physical world. An example would be Hobbes.
Who distinguished two sorts of motions peculiar to animals: vital and voluntary motions?
A. Thomas Hobbes
B. John Locke
C. George Berkley
D. Leibniz
A. Thomas Hobbes
Locke says that government was instituted by ____?
A. God
B. Nature
C. The people
D. The rich
The people
According to Locke, what can we know substance is?
A. Something – we know not what
B. The simplest idea
C. Something with weight
D. The smallest possible piece of matter
A. Something – we know not what
(T/F) According to John Locke ideas can be classified as either simple or complex.
True
What is empiricism?
The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience.
In Hume’s philosophy, perceptions are divided into which two major classes?

A. Representation and absolutism.
B. Impressions and ideas.
C. Reflection and experience.
D. External and internal.

B. Impressions and ideas.
Matter of fact reasoning is gained through what?

A. Thought.
B. Association.
C. Attraction.
D. Experience.

D. Experience.
What Plato calls a soul is called a what by Hume?

A. Self.
B. Mind.
C. Body.
D. Monad.

Self
T/F: Determinism claims that human actions are caused by circumstance.
True
Summarized Hume’s argument against cause and effect.
1. If belief in C&E is based on reason, then it is either a relation of ideas or a matter of fact.
2. ~ROI.
3. ~MOF.
4. Therefore, C&E is not based on reason.
True/False: The 18th century movement that called on individuals to use their reason and throw off old traditions and superstitions is known as the Enlightenment.
True
Which of the following is true of David Hume?
A. He thinks that moral claims are conceptual truths
B. He is a rationalist
C. He thinks that a science of human nature along Newtonian lines will be a strong defense against superstition
D. He argues that morality is founded in reason
C. He thinks that a science of human nature along Newtonian lines will be a strong defense against superstition
Which of the following is NOT one of Hume’s criticisms of the argument by design?
A No argument from experience can ever establish a certainty
B The proportion of goodness we are justified in ascribing to God cannot exceed the proportion of goodness in the world
C There are other analogies between the makings of a clock and a universe that point to a different conclusion than the existence of an all-good, supreme God.
D The argument by design commits the ad hominem fallacy
D The argument by design commits the ad hominem fallacy
Which of the following does NOT characterize the views of David Hume concerning Descartes “antecedent skepticism?”
A. Hume finds this brand of skepticism useful and workable
B Hume thinks that you can’t really bring yourself to doubt everything, as Descartes tried.
C Hume argues that if you doubt everything, it would be impossible to get back to rational belief, since the competence of your reasoning faculties is one of the things being doubted!
D Both A and B
A. Hume finds this brand of skepticism useful and workable
Consider one of Descartes’ arguments for the existence of God:
a. I have in my head the idea of God
b. Such an idea requires a cause
c. I myself could not possibly be the cause
d. The only plausible alternative cause is God himself.
e. Therefore, God exists.
David Hume criticizes premise c of this argument. What is his objection?
He thinks that the idea of God has its origin in impressions. We reflect on ourselves and find impressions of intelligence and goodness. We also have, from our impressions, the ideas of more and less. If we combine the idea of more with the ideas of intelligence and goodness, we get the idea of a being more intelligent and good than we are. We can reiterate this operation, over and over again, until we get the idea of a being that is perfectly intelligent and completely good. And this is the idea of God.
Thomas Hobbes believes that the mind is ______ the body.
A. Subordinate to
B. Tricked by
C. Independent of
D. Another element of
D. Another element of
John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding is considered to mark the beginning of _____ in philosophy.
A. Religious thought
B. Empiricism
C. Existentialism
D. Subjectivity
B. Empiricism
Hobbes and Lock have opposite views concerning:
A. The existence of the soul
B. Cartesian mathematics
C. Celestial motion
D. Papal authority
A. The existence of the soul
T/F. John Locke believed that the state of nature for humans was to live isolated and to act solely in their own best interests.
False. John Locke believed that the state of nature for humans was to live communally and cooperatively.
How does Hobbes define life?
Life is the “motion of limbs.” Living things are things with a source of motion within them. Automata are thus no different from people. Arguably, people are nothing more than a heart, nerves, joints, etc. Souls and similar concepts are not the defining elements of a living thing.
1. According to Hume, perceptions can be divided into two major classes, what are those two major classes?

a. Thoughts & Ideas
b. Senses & Impressions
c. Impressions & Ideas
d. Thoughts & Senses

c. Impressions & Ideas
1. Which of the following options below does NOT describe the Enlightenment?

a. Those who lived through this period felt that progress was being made almost daily toward overthrowing superstition and arbitrary authority
b. It focused highly on emotions taking precedence over reason, even though reason is important
c. The enlightenment replaced ignorance with knowledge and blind obedience with freedom
d. It was an age full of optimism

b. It focused highly on emotions taking precedence over reason, even though reason is important
1. According to Hume, the data that scientists of human nature must observe and from which they can draw principles “as universal as possible” come from what and is defined as all the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert?

a. Perceptions
b. Experiences
c. Doubts
d. Sensations

Perceptions
True or False? A constant conjunction of events is when we form the habit of expecting the second when we observe the first, thinking that the first causes the second.
True
Please describe the argument from design in a couple of sentences.
It was a popular argument for the existence of God during the time of the Enlightenment that is based off of experience. The image of a great machine, or clockwork dominates 18th century thought about the nature of the world. It suggests a powerful analogy. Just as machines are the effects of intelligent design and workmanship, so the universe is the work of a master craftsman, supremely intelligent and wonderfully skilled. It embraces the idea that machines do not just happen and neither does the world.
According to Hume, cause is defined as:

A. The Constant Conjunction of Events
B. A Necessary Connection between Events
C. A and B
D. None of the above

C. A and B
According to Hume, a “self” is:
A. The soul or mind of an individual
B. Purely material/the body
C. Non-existent
D. Unknowable
D. Unknowable
Suppose you hear a song on the radio and later you have the song stuck in your head, according to Hume, the song in your head would be considered a:

A. Association
B. Idea
C. Impression
D. Conjunction

B. Idea
T/F: David Hume says there is no reason to believe in God.
True
Briefly summarize Hume’s view on morality.
Hume says that the foundation of morality is sentiment (feelings of approval/disapproval) and not reason. We approve of things which are agreeable or useful. Sympathy (or humanity or fellow feeling) is a passion in human beings which removes the possibility of being moral out of pure self-interest and leads us to approve of moral acts even though we receive no benefit from it.
According to Hume, what are perceptions?
A. Impressions and ideas
B. Complex ideas and simple ideas
C. Impressions and memory
D. Impressions and presentations
A. Impressions and ideas
Hume’s disappearing __________?
A. Person
B. Self
C. People
D. Place
B. Self (CORRECT)
Due to being trapped in solipsism, Descartes sought out to find the existence of ____?
A. Mind
B. Man
C. Soul
D. God
D. God
T/F David Hume was to human nature as Newton was for nonhuman nature.
True
What is a framing hypothesis?
Hume argues that a framing hypothesis is a principle of examination not derived from close examination of the fact. In short, it is a hypothesis entirely drawn from non-factual assumptions.
T/F Hume tries to construct an analysis into the elements of the mind, the relation between them, and the principles that explain how they interact
True
Hume is committed to sticking to
A. outside surroundings
B. People as influencers
C. The phenomena, perceptions of the mind
D. The ancients
C. The phenomena, perceptions of the mind
According to Hume, it is that allows us to reach out beyond the limits of present sensation and memories
A. causation
B. perception
C. personal introspection
D. analysis
A. causation
Hume defines what as “a substance or thing, simple, and invariably the same through time; the home for all our mental states and activities, the place where these characteristics are located”?
A. mind
B. being
C. self
D. character
Self
According to Hume, what does the idea of God has its origin in? Explain what this means
Hume believes that the idea of God has its origin in impressions. We reflect on ourselves and find impressions of intelligence and a degree of goodness—we then get the idea of being more intelligent and good than we are. We reiterate this until we get the idea of a being that is perfectly intelligent and completely good; this is God.
What did Hobbes call his method for obtaining knowledge?
A) Mind and Matter
B) Natural Reasoning
C) Resolution and Composition
D) Insight and Deduction
C) Resolution and Composition
Locke describes innate ideas specifically as

A) Ideals universally held in all minds
B) Ideas that we are born with
C) Our natural reaction to the world
D) How human beings reason about their surroundings

A) Ideals universally held in all minds
Which of the following is considered John Locke’s masterpiece?

A) Common Sense
B) Meditations
C) Leviathan
D) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

D) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
True or False: Berkeley agreed with Locke about abstract ideas
False
Describe what Hobbes meant when he wrote about natural rights.
The right of nature is using power and reason to survive. By nature every person has the right to everything, even if it is owned by somebody else. So long as this right is asserted there can be no security.
Concerning method as the key to progress, Hobbes ___________ with Descartes.
A. disagrees
B. agrees
C. argues
D. none of the above
B. agrees
Hobbes method of learning, which he claims to have learned from Galileo, is called:
A. Intuition
B. Intellectual understanding
C. resolution and composition
D. fate and reasoning
C. resolution and composition
Locke’s political beliefs are that:
A. Humans are lone beings, and do not enjoy meeting with others
B. People will fight one another to get what they want
C. People will work together as communities and cooperate in the state of nature
D. The needs of society will be met through a harnessing of selfishness through constitutionalism
C. People will work together as communities and cooperate in the state of nature
Hobbes believes that people are incapable of trusting each other in a state of nature
True or False
True
Explain Hobbes’ view of a contract in the state of nature.
Hobbes believes that people in a state of nature are incapable of creating contracts with one another, simply because we can’t trust each other enough to “go out on a limb.” In this position, people will only be able to do business with each other if they participate in a “covenant” or like action, which requires that both people do what they say they will at the same time. Because Hobbes is of the opinion that we are incapable of trusting each other, it only follows that we will not be able to do anything for anyone else unless we’re sure that we will receive recompense.
According to the Leviathan the most ideal form of government was:
A)A Civic republic
B) Direct Democracy
C) Absolute Monarchy
D) Liberal Democracy
C) Absolute Monarchy
Which of the following statements about human nature would Thomas Hobbes not have agreed with?
A) Humans are egotistic
B) Humans are relatively equal
C) Humas are rational
D) Humans have the right to certain unalienable rights
D) Humans have the right to certain unalienable rights
The two rights which Locke felt individuals must give up to form a government were:
A) Punish criminals and Self Help
B) Self-protection and Property
C) Violent retaliation and self-determination
D) Whatever rights the government felt were necessary in order to maintain security and order in the state.
A) Punish criminals and Self Help
True or False: Locke agreed with Hobbes’ view of the ideal government
False
Explain Locke’s view of negative rights and give an example.
Negative rights refer to nature rights that individuals have claim to simply because they are human. Example: Life
The 18th century is often called the:
A. romance century
B. Industrial boom
C. Age of Enlightenment
D. Age of Pioneers
C. Age of Enlightenment
2. According to Immanuel Kant, “Enlightenment is __”
A. a state of being
B. a state of thinking
C. clarity regarding the nature of our humanistic forms
D. man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity
D. man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity
Newton used two stages in developing thought. They are:
A. search and ponder
B. grab and sniff
C. analysis and synthesis
D. observe and hypothesize
C. analysis and synthesis
Newton believed that the key to science is to stay close to the phenomena.
True or False
True
Explain how we are to gain courage, according to Kant.
To remedy the problems we experience with courage, we need to realize that such limitations are self-imposed. We also need to realize that we are no longer controlled by our supposed guardians.
Immanuel Kant stated that _________ woke him from a dogmatic slumber.
A. Socrates
B. Beethoven
C. Hegel
D. Kant
D. Kant (correct)
A judgment is “a priori” when:
A. It is founded on the authority of the papacy
B. It is agreed upon by all leading philosophers of the era
C. It contains a contradiction, and therefore cannot be true
D. It can be known to be true without any reference to experience
D. It can be known to be true without any reference to experience
A judgment is “a posteriori” when:
A. It can be determined from the latest news
B. We can know its truth without having had experience with it
C. We can only know something is true through experience
D. It is ill-founded and unconsequential
C. We can only know something is true through experience
T/F: A judgment is analytic when its denial yields a contradiction.
True
Describe a synthetic judgment.
A synthetic argument does more than simply define or describe the world around us. Here, the concept of having a cause is not found in being an event. It is the opposite of an analytic argument, in that the opposite of synthetic arguments is always possible. An example would be “air has weight.”
The theory that we are bound to make decisions to pursue our own best self-interest is:
A. Psychological Egoism
B. Psychological Benevolence
C. Psychological Awareness
D. Psychological Breakdown
A. Psychological Egoism
The theory that we ought to pursue our own self-interest is:
A. Natural Egoism
B. Psychological Egoism
C. Ethical Egoism
D. Moral Egoism
C. Ethical Egoism
Choose the best example of the “invisible hand” theory:
A. there is a force beyond our control guiding our actions
B. we all have invisible hands pushing down on us
C. if we look out for our own self-interest, it will benefit the rest of society
D. the actions that we make will eventually affect everyone else
C. if we look out for our own self-interest, it will benefit the rest of society
T/F: The structure of a sentence is subject and predicate.
True
Explain the difficulties surrounding psychological egoism, and what Butler does to counter the validity of this theory.
It undermines itself in a kind of circular reasoning. All of our actions are motivated by our desires, and we cannot make a choice without being led by these desires. You have your choice, but what you decide to do will be determined by your own self-interest. Butler says that we are led by a satisfaction of our desires, and desires have objects. We can desire to do good for other people, and this becomes the object of our desires. Satisfaction comes from satisfying said desires.
How does Kant describe the immaturity that ended with the enlightenment?
A) Inability to answer questions of the natural world.
B) Inability to use your own understanding without guidance from another.
C) Reliance on superstition
D) Childish behaviour perpetrated by the church.
B) Inability to use your own understanding without guidance from another.
David Hume is to Human Nature as:
A) Newton is to non-human nature
B) Thomas Hobbes is to authoritative government
C) Kant is to non-human nature
D) Hobbes is to social contract
A) Newton is to non-human nature
Hume’s main motivations were:
A) Prove the existence of God, and provide each individual a relationship with deity.
B) Rationally explain the natural world, advocate for individualism.
C) Debunk “popular superstition” and prove human nature is fundamental.
D) All of the above.
C) Debunk “popular superstition” and prove human nature is fundamental.
True or False: David Hume agreed with Descartes not Hobbes’ solution to the mind/body problem.
False
What are Hume’s two major class of perception’s, explain them and give an example of each.
Impressions: Perceptions which enter with force, sensations, passions and emotions in their first appearance. Ex. The pain of punching a wall.
Ideas: The images of these emotions, sensations, etc in the mind as we think/reason/remember. Ex. The memory of the sound your punch made.
Complete the quote from David Hume- ” As the science of man is the only solid foundation for the other sciences, so the only solid foundation we can give to this science itself must be laid on ________ and _________.”
A. observation and expertise
B. knowledge and observation
C. experience and observation
D. assumptions and doubt
C. experience and observation
According to Hume, what are the two major classes of perceptions?
A. impressions and ideas
B. assumptions and senses
C. sense experience and ideas
D. impressions and assumptions
A. impressions and ideas
Hume claims that reason-
A. should be the only basis for science
B. can tell us right from wrong
C. is not sufficient to overcome doubt
D. is not a motivator
D. is not a motivator
T/F- Antecedent skepticism and mitigated skepticism are two of the types of skepticism that Hume identifies.
True
Describe the fact/value or is/ought problem
Reason can tell us what the facts are, but it cannot tell us how they should be valued. Reason can tell us what is, but not what ought to be.
Which of the following is NOT one of Hume’s principles of association?
A. Resemblance
B. Contiguity
C. Attraction
D. Cause or Effect
C. Attraction
The view that human actions constitute no exception to the universal rule of casual law is known as _____?
A. Compatibilism
B. Determinism
C. Naturalism
D. Attraction
B. Determinism
Hume calls all of the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert, ______?
A. Perceptions
B. Impressions
C. Ideas
D. Thoughts
A. Perceptions
(T/F) Hume is committed to the basic principle of the representational theory.
True
What is “a posteriori” mean?
It is an argument that depends in an essential way upon experience.
According to Hume, _______________ alone can never motivate us to action.
a. Reason
b. Passion
c. Threats
d. Lobster
a. Reason
Hume says that reason ‘is, and ought only to be ____________’.
a. Not enough
b. A prime motivator
c. The slave of the passions
d. The captain of the soul
c. The slave of the passions
Which is NOT one of the names Hume gives our passion that makes possible the ‘disinterestedness’ of moral judgments?
a. Sympathy
b. Humanity
c. Fellow Feeling
d. Love
d. Love
Hume insists that morality is not founded on reason. True/False
True
What stops Hume’s philosophy from plunging into moral relativism?
The insistence on sympathy as a driving passion, that unites the community and within each individual pushes for a commonality in the moral sense of all.
T/F: Geometry is the pure intuition of space.
True
What example did Kant use in outer space?
a. An eagle
b. A dove
c. A horse
d. A penguin
b. A dove
Which of the following is NOT found in Kant’s judgement matrix?
a. subjective
b. analytic
c. a priori
d. a posteriori
e. synthetic
a. subjective
According to Kant, what makes mathematics possible?
a. space
b. energy
c. time
d. life
c. time
Why doesn’t anything fit into “analytic, a posteriori?”
Analytic means that its denial yields a contradiction. We do not need to examine experience to know that a father must have children.
T/F: According to Hobbes, a government can never be accused of injustice
True
According to Locke, which is the first and greatest source of ideas?
A. Sensation
B. Imagination
C. Reflection
A. Sensation
Nominal Essences are
A. Our own creations
B. Essences of animals strictly
C. The entire essence of an object
A. Our own creations
Which of the following is NOT listed as an Extant of Knowledge according to Locke?
A. Relations between ideas
B. Real existance
C. Coexistance
D. Nonexistance
D. Nonexistance
According to Hobbes, what is necessary to make a contract operative?
A common power set over them both, with right and force sufficient to compel performance.
T/F: To come to his scientific conclusions, Newton framed hypotheses
False
Hume aspires to be the who of human nature as this man was to nonhuman nature?
A. Galileo
B. Newton
C. Leibniz
D. Einstein
B. Newton
According to Hume, what is the difference between impressions and ideas?
Degrees of force and liveliness
General impressions are comprised of what (select all that apply)
A. Complex impressions
B. Simple impressions
C. Novel ideas
D. Sensations
A. Complex impressions
B. Simple impressions
According to new science, motion is…
A. Development towards some fulfilling goal
B. Motion in a straight line
C. A body’s change of place in a neutral geometrical space
D. Rapid movement
C. A body’s change of place in a neutral geometrical space (CORRECT)
Where is the distinction found between artificial life and life?
A. The soul
B. The mind
C. Happiness
D. Goals
A. The soul (CORRECT)
Spinoza is a…
A. Dualist
B. Pluralist
C. Monist
D. Utilitarian
C. Monist
T/F John Locke is a metaphysician?
True
What, according to John Locke, is a substance?
He believes that anything that can exist on its own is a substance. There are substances and properties of substances. Substances are knowable according to their form.
Thomas Hobbes’ “social contract” view of society is based on a theory that individuals must:

A Make separate contracts for every transaction.
B Form a democracy or republic in order to create laws.
C Give up some of their liberty to a centralized sovereign who can enforce laws.
D Learn to work together or their culture will fail to last.

C Give up some of their liberty to a centralized sovereign who can enforce laws.
John Locke’s theory of property goes through four basic stages. The last is:

A Private property by mixing labor with land.
B A money system is developed.
C Money becomes a commodity.
D Communal ownership.

C Money becomes a commodity.
Locke suggested the notion of simple ideas and complex ideas. How do complex ideas differ from simple ideas?

A Simple ideas form the building blocks for complex ideas.
B Complex ideas can have primary and secondary qualities.
C Complex ideas form the building blocks for simple ideas.
D Both A and B

D Both A and B
T / F Francis Bacon argued that we can only gain knowledge by via positive, or deductive reasoning.
False
Explain in a few sentences what John Locke claimed as original duties of government and why.
Locke theorized that, even in a state of nature, human beings would form societies and organize themselves. However, there would be some who would desire to break this order and take more than they are entitled to receive. Therefore, to protect the life of its members, a society must create a government that can (1) punish criminals and (2) protect citizens. Members of a society give up all of their rights to punish criminals, but can still protect themselves if their lives are threatened. In addition, Locke argues that a government can take on the task of redistributing property if the right to food and life is threatened by one of its members’ lack thereof.
When Newton says that he “frames no hypotheses,” he means that he:

A Never predicts the effect of an experiment.
B Never forms an opinion unless he has physical proof of its truth.
C Never finishes his hypotheses and “frames” them as in a picture—he is always improving them.
D Never forms an opinion based solely on reason, but sticks to the observation of “phenomena.”

D Never forms an opinion based solely on reason, but sticks to the observation of “phenomena.”
David Hume proposes a theory of human nature by examining:

A Rational bases for everything, like Descartes’ cogito.
B A priori knowledge, or knowledge that seems to be born within all rational beings.
C The physical interaction of matter in our brains, e.g. neurons and other brain matter.
D Human perceptions, or the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert.

D Human perceptions, or the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert.
For Hume, the principle of cause and effect is:

A A guiding principle for his work in empiricism, especially studying the effect of experiments.
B Habitual connections formed by the mind after seeing one thing follow another many times.
C A discovery by the mind of the real causes of natural phenomena.
D Both A and B

B Habitual connections formed by the mind after seeing one thing follow another many times.
T / F Hume divided the contents of our minds into two essential “classes”: impressions (our initial experience of a stimuli) and ideas (our memory or copy of the impression).
True
Explain in a few sentences how David Hume explained the apparent contradiction of determinism and liberty in human nature
For Hume, determinism is no different from our ordinary perceptions of cause and effect. Since—for Hume—the principle of cause and effect consists entirely of human minds noticing patterns, human nature is thus deterministic because it follows clear patterns: greed leads to stealing, love leads to signs of affection, etc. However, Hume maintains that humans maintain a semblance of liberty as long as they are free to act on these internal motivations—if I want to write this assignment at midnight two days after it is due, rather than at the proper time, I am free to do so. Thus, though our actions are “determined” by internal motivations (or rather, follow them regularly, for Hume maintains we cannot know more than this), we are more or less free to follow those internal motivations.
According to Hume, perceptions can be divided into two major classes, what are those two major classes?

a. Thoughts & Ideas
b. Senses & Impressions
c. Impressions & Ideas
d. Thoughts & Senses

c. Impressions & Ideas
Which of the following options below does NOT describe the Enlightenment?

a. Those who lived through this period felt that progress was being made almost daily toward overthrowing superstition and arbitrary authority
b. It focused highly on emotions taking precedence over reason, even though reason is important
c. The enlightenment replaced ignorance with knowledge and blind obedience with freedom
d. It was an age full of optimism.

b. It focused highly on emotions taking precedence over reason, even though reason is important
According to Hume, the data that scientists of human nature must observe and from which they can draw principles “as universal as possible” come from what and is defined as all the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert?

a. Perceptions
b. Experiences
c. Doubts
d. Sensations

a. Perceptions
True or False? A constant conjunction of events is when we form the habit of expecting the second when we observe the first, thinking that the first causes the second.
True
Please describe the argument from design in a couple of sentences.
It was a popular argument for the existence of God during the time of the Enlightenment that is based off of experience. The image of a great machine, or clockwork dominates 18th century thought about the nature of the world. It suggests a powerful analogy. Just as machines are the effects of intelligent design and workmanship, so the universe is the work of a master craftsman, supremely intelligent and wonderfully skilled. It embraces the idea that machines do not just happen and neither does the world.
True/False: Although he later abandons this view, David Hume argued that the self is a bundle of perceptions
True
Which of the following best describes the idea of direct realism?

A. A political theory advocated by Thomas Hobbes which says that, given self-interest and rationality, countries will go to war with each other.
B. the perceptual theory that says, while there are indeed external objects, there are mediations between our minds and the actual objects
C. the moral theory that says an action is morally right if it is natural and immoral if it is unnatural.
D. the perceptual theory that we directly get hold of the objects we perceive

D. the perceptual theory that we directly get hold of the objects we perceive
In showing that morality is not based on reason, Hume argues that morality is not a matter of fact. How does he demonstrate this?

A. He doesn’t. Hume never states that morality is not a matter of fact.
B. Empirical knowledge tells us about what is the case but morality speaks of what ought to be the case. We can’t get from descriptions to prescriptions.
C. Moral claims aren’t a matter of fact because for any moral claim, we can completely understand it and still wonder whether it is true.
D. Matters of fact are subject to the sensory experience doubts listed by Descartes in Meditations 1. Hume doesn’t want moral claims to be subject to such doubts so he argues that they aren’t matters of fact.

B. Empirical knowledge tells us about what is the case but morality speaks of what ought to be the case. We can’t get from descriptions to prescriptions.
For Immanuel Kant, what is the only thing good without qualification?

A. Virtue
B. Wisdom
C. A good will
D. The soul

C. A good will
Immanuel Kant claims that the categorical imperative will tell us whether any given action is moral or immoral. Please write the categorical imperative.
An act is morally acceptable if, and only if, its maxim is universalizable.

(Or you may use Kant’s own words: “Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law”)

What is Berkeley arguing against when he says that “all degrees of heat exist only in perceiving minds”?

A. Perceptual Relativity
B. The Veil of Perception
C. Direct Realism
D. Empiricism

C. Direct Realism
The following statement made by Kant is regarded as what?

“Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in any other person, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means.”

A. The good will
B. The categorical imperative
C. The holy will
D. The hypothetical imperative

B. The categorical imperative
Which of the following is not considered an “idea of pure reason” according to Kant?

A. Causality
B. the soul
C. God
D. free will

A. Causality*
(T/F) Immanuel Kant is an atheist.
False
Explain the following statement by Kant: “Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind.”
Kant believes that to have knowledge of an object requires the simultaneous use of two capacities of the rational mind: sensibility and understanding. Sensibility refers to taking in objects through the senses empirically in intuition, understanding refers to the way by which objects can be thought via concepts. Both must be used in order to have knowledge. Taking an object in through the senses without having any concept of the object makes the sense experience meaningless to the observer. Could a person looking at the sky say that it is blue if the observer has no concept of color? Also, simply having a concept in the mind but no intuition with a particular object to go along with that concept is also meaningless. Could you know what blue is if you have never seen it? Or what causality is if you have never seen one event necessarily followed by another?
How does Butler disprove psychological egoism?

A. Showing the logical structure of psychological egoism to be invalid.
B. Showing how pursuing pure self-interest is paralytic
C. Showing that ethical egoism is false and invalid.
D. Butler did not successfully disprove psychological egoism.

B. Showing how pursuing pure self-interest is paralytic
How does Kant show mathematics as expressed in 7+5=12 to be synthetic?

A. Denying intuitions.
B. It is neither necessary nor universal.
C. 7+5 does not actually contain 12 in itself.
D. Demonstrating space to be independent of the mind

C. 7+5 does not actually contain 12 in itself.
To Kant, what is a concept?

A. A rule for operating on intuitions.
B. An idea that fall short of representations.
C. Some content of our mind.
D. Something that can only be empirical.

A. A rule for operating on intuitions.
T/F: A noumenon is a term Kant uses to refer to something’s appearance to us.
False
Summarize the categorical imperative.
Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
T/F: Consciousness corrects itself.
True
Hegel’s use of the word “spirit” or giest might better be translated as:
a. soul
b. body
c. mind
mind
What group resists analysis and science and views Greece as a model society?
a. the romantics
b. the dogmatists
c. the skeptics
d. the French
The romantics
According to Hegel as knowledge develops it can reach the end of
a. truth
b. absolute knowledge
c. fact
d. certainty
b. absolute knowledge
Why does Hegel feel he has no need of faith?
He feels like his consciousness has thought of everything. He thinks that there are no more possibilities and thus no need for faith.
Hobbes method consisted of…
A) Knocking and asking.
B) Resolution and composition.
C) Identifying and composing.
D) Dissecting and identifying.
B) Resolution and composition.
Hobbes believed that people were motivated by…
A) Morals.
B) Desire.
C) Fear.
D) Need.
B) Desire.
In the state of nature, Hobbes claims it is impossible for contracts or promises to be fulfilled. This is why we need a…
A) Family
B) School
C) Sovereign
D) Church
C) Sovereign
What is a right of nature, according to Thomas Hobbes?
A right of nature is the fact that there are no rules to prevent someone from protecting their life and happiness.
T or F. Hobbes believed that humans are egoistic, rational and relatively equal.
True
What is one of Hume’s categories for objects of human reason?
A) Intelligent assumptions
B) Matters of Fact
C) Decided Theories
D) Factual Impressions
B) Matters of Fact
Hume connects the elements of ideas and impressions together with what he calls the principles of…
A) Right
B) Association
C) Necessity
D) Dependence
B) Association
When we form a habit of expecting something when something else proceeds it, we are experiencing what Hume calls…
A) Causal discrepancy
B) Necessary connection
C) Constant conjunction
D) Matters of fact gone astray
C) Constant conjunction
What, according to Hume, is the difference between ideas and impressions?
Impressions are the perceptions which enter our mind with the most force, namely our passions, sensations and emotions. Ideas are the not quite as vivid images of these things we use in thinking and reasoning.
T or F. The fact/value gap, as Hume states, is the fact that while reason can tell us what the facts are, it cannot tell us how to value them.
True
Butler gave felt that _________ was a circular argument.
A) Solipsism.
B) Psychological egoism.
C) Volunteerism.
D) Determinism.
B) Psychological egoism.
Thomas Reid believed that ___________ should be at the foundation of all philosophical inquiry.
A) Represational realism
B) Common sense
C) Aristotlean views
D) Skepticism
B) Common sense
Adam Smith felt that, while men were guided by their own self-interest, they were also being led by (a/an) _________, which often promotes society around him better than he himself might have.
A) God
B) Rule Book
C) Invisible hand
D) Conscience
C) Invisible hand
Name one flaw Thomas Butler saw in psychological egoism and explain it.
One flaw is that of the lack of objects. Psychological egoism can not, by itself, explain an action as its own. Therefore there must be something underneath it, something deeper. Butler calls these things objects. If the object of one’s desire is another person, it defeats psychological egoism.
T or F. Thomas Reid was an advocate of direct realism.
True
A priori Knowledge, according to Kant, is all of these except…
A) Universal
B) Dependent on experience
C) Necessary
D) Independent of experience
B) Dependent on experience
If A and B have a necessary connection, then…
A) A is true if B is not true
B) A is true if and only if B is true
C) B is true if A is not true
D) There is no correlation between the two
B) A is true if and only if B is true
A phenomenon, according to Kant, is…
A) A great movie that helps us understand more about philosophy.
B) How something really is, but not how it appears to us.
C) How something appears to us, but not necessarily how it really is.
D) Something that is shown to us by someone else.
C) How something appears to us, but not necessarily how it really is.
According to Kant, why is math a priori knowledge?
Kant states that because we cannot see math, or sense it in any way, we cannot truly know it. Nevertheless it is a fundamental part of our mind that we cannot escape. But there is also no way to truly know that 2 + 2 = 4. But we also cannot know that it is not.
T or F. In an Analytic form of thought, according to Kant, the predicate is contained in the subject.
True
According to the text, what were David Hume’s two main motivations for providing principles of explanation?
A) Debunking popular superstition
B) His conviction that a science of human nature is fundamental
C) Both A and B
D) None of the above
C) Both A and B
Hume described the “home” where all our mental states and activities are located as
A) The Self
B) The Soul
C) The Mind
D) The Id
A) The Self
What did Hume believe about God?
A) That God was the first cause in the universe
B) That God exists but cannot be known
C) We have no reason to believe in God
D) God is the source of all happiness
C) We have no reason to believe in God
True/False: Hume believed that we can arrive at knowledge a priori
False
How was David Hume similar to Isaac Newton?
Newton provided scientific explanations for the universe, allowing him to explain the way gravity worked, for example. His discoveries debunked many of the religious traditions and superstitions of the time, allowing for a new way of thinking about the universe. Likewise, Hume sought to understand human nature by providing simple explanations for it. He sought to dismiss superstition and instead gave reasons for why humans act the way that they do.
Joseph Butler’s argument about psychological egoism claims that all of our actions are motivated by
A. Self-interest
B. Altruism
C. Social norms
D. Tradition
A. Self-interest
When we must appeal to experience to determine the truth or falsity of a judgment, it is considered to be
A. A priori
B. A posteriori
C. Sensation
D. False
B. A posteriori
According to Kant, which of the following is not listed as a main capacity of the rational mind?
A. Sensibility
B. Understanding
C. Reasoning
D. Judging
D. Judging
T/F Rational psychology is an attempt to understand the fundamental nature of the self by rational reflection on what the self must be if experience is possible.
True
What is one thing Joseph Butler’s argument on psychological egoism does not account for? What is the psychological egoist’s defense against this claim?
Joseph Butler’s argument on psychological egoism does not account for us wanting those we love to do well. In response to this claim, a psychological egoist argues that people are satisfied by pleasing others; when other people succeed, it will have a positive effect on us. Therefore, our desire for others to do well is still rooted in self-interest.
Thomas Reid argued against George Berkely’s metaphysical view of the world because:

A It relied too much on the existence of God.
B It defied “common sense” (or the way our brains naturally process information).
C It denied the existence of objects except as they are perceived or could be perceived.
D It leaned too far towards skepticism.

B It defied “common sense” (or the way our brains naturally process information).
Kant divides knowledge (judgment) into two types: synthetic and analytic. What is the nature of synthetic knowledge?

A The predicate of the statement gives more information about the subject; its opposite is possible.
B The predicate of the statement gives more information about the subject; its opposite is not possible.
C The predicate of the statement does not give more information about the subject; its opposite is possible.
D The predicate of the statement does not give more information about the subject; its opposite is not possible.

A The predicate of the statement gives more information about the subject; its opposite is possible.
Joseph Butler argued against psychological egoism by invoking which argument?

A Human beings sometimes help each other in situations where they have absolutely nothing to gain; therefore, human beings sometimes act in ways other than self-interest.
B A person cannot actually have a concept of their own self-interest because it is an idea that does not have an impression associated with it; therefore, humans do not have a concept of self.
C Satisfaction must have another object besides its own satisfaction; therefore, the desire to help another person cannot be motivated simply by the desire to satisfy that desire.
D We cannot understand the workings of our minds; therefore, it is impossible to conclude that we all act self-interestedly.

C Satisfaction must have another object besides its own satisfaction; therefore, the desire to help another person cannot be motivated simply by the desire to satisfy that desire.
T / F Adam Smith, in his moral philosophy, claimed that human beings always act self-interestedly. This claim has become the foundation for modern economics.
False
Explain in a few sentences Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative.
Kant determines that we need a law which determines what is universally right or good. He also claims that it needs to be categorically imperative, not just dependent on “if” statements or simple rules of advice. This law also needs to be independent of empirical sensibility and human inclination (emotion), make no reference to consequences (rejecting utilitarianism), be capable of inspiring respect, and be universal (because it is a law). By reasoning back from these points, Kant arrives at what he feels is the only reasonable conclusion: Do only that which you can simultaneously will should be a universal law.
Libertarians desire:
a. Liberty in social sphere
b. Liberty in free market
c. Liberty in both social sphere and free market
d. Liberty in neither social sphere nor free market.
c. Liberty in both social sphere and free market
Who of the following does not follow the law of contradictions?
a. children & insane
b. children & idiots
c. insane & idiots
d. none of the above
b. children & idiots
Who argues against cause and effect?
a. Hume
b. Barkley
c. Locke
d. Descartes
a. Hume
. T/F Locke believes in innate principles
False
State Locke’s stages of nature
Stage one:
-Communal ownership
Stage two:
-Mixing labor with soil
-Not wasting property
-Everybody doing something
Stage three:
-Labor theory of value
-Monetary value reflected in our labor
-Exchange value that will not perish
-Can grow as much as you want and nothing will go to waste
Stage four:
-Money as capital: bought and sold
-Pricing in terms of supply and demand
-Labor no longer guaranteed to return and sustain life
How does Kant describe the immaturity that ended with the enlightenment?
A) Inability to answer questions of the natural world.
B) Inability to use your own understanding without guidance from another.
C) Reliance on superstition
D) Childish behaviour perpetrated by the church.
B) Inability to use your own understanding without guidance from another.
David Hume is to Human Nature as:
A) Newton is to non-human nature
B) Thomas Hobbes is to authoritative government
C) Kant is to non-human nature
D) Hobbes is to social contract
A) Newton is to non-human nature
Hume’s main motivations were:
A) Prove the existence of God, and provide each individual a relationship with deity.
B) Rationally explain the natural world, advocate for individualism.
C) Debunk “popular superstition” and prove human nature is fundamental.
D) All of the above.
C) Debunk “popular superstition” and prove human nature is fundamental.
True or False: David Hume agreed with Descartes not Hobbes’ solution to the mind/body problem.
False
What are Hume’s two major class of perception’s, explain them and give an example of each.
Impressions: Perceptions which enter with force, sensations, passions and emotions in their first appearance. Ex. The pain of punching a wall.
Ideas: The images of these emotions, sensations, etc in the mind as we think/reason/remember. Ex. The memory of the sound your punch made.
David Hume aspired to do for human nature what ______ did for nonhuman nature.
A. Rene Descartes
B. Michel de Montaigne
C. Isaac Newton
D. Copernicus
C. Isaac Newton
Which of the following is a subject within the science of human nature?
A. Height
B. Weight
C. Skin color
D. Emotions
Emotions
Which of the following is an example of a complex perception?
The impression you get when you:
A. Hear a joke
B. Slap a table
C. Jump in a pool
D. Eat a carrot
Hear a joke
T/F. David Hume believes that there are legitimate value-facts.
False. David Hume believed that there are no value-facts. Rather, “values are projections onto the facts, all of which have the same value” (pg. 422).
Describe David Hume’s brand of skepticism.
David Hume believed in mitigated skepticism. Man should question the world, but not to the point of a paralysis of thought, leaving him terrified at his inability to justify every tenet of existence. Rather, skepticism should go so far as to promote modesty and humility in knowledge, dispell dogmatism, and allow man to enjoy nature as it exists around him.
Hume
A. argues for cause and effect
B. argues against cause and effect
C. argues for reason
D. argues for two of the above
B. argues against cause and effect
Who is associated with the usage of common sense?
A. Hume
B. Reid
C. Butler
D. Smith
B. Reid
Hume is to shared emotions as Adam Smith is to what?
A. imagination
B. simpathy
C. contagious emotions
D. none of the above
imagination
T/F Hume’s Fork reveals the two kinds of knowledge as truth of reason and matters of fact
True
Describe Reid’s beliefs on idea.
Reid believes that an individual never encounters ideas even though we speak as though we have. Ideas are instead a reflection upon ourselves and the minds intervention between us and the world.
According to Hobbes, humans tend towards what?
A. Mutual cooperation
B. Mutual defection
C. Single betrayal
D. Peace
B. Mutual defection
Hobbes hypothesized that there is nothing more in reality but
A. War and peace
B. Thought and action
C. Matter and motion
D. Space and harmony
C. Matter and motion
According to Locke, the human state of nature is
A. Mostly cooperative, communal and sharing
B. Constantly tending towards war
C. Mistrusting, but cooperative
D. Self before all else
A. Mostly cooperative, communal and sharing
T/F A social contract is an agreement to limit liberties.
True
Describe Locke’s ideas about ownership of property.
Locke theorized that all resources were owned by everyone, and that mixing one’s labor with the soil made the soil by extension the property of the laborer. Because an excess could be produced, money could be traded for this excess to the point that money itself, and not just the fruits of the land were a commodity.
What are perceptions, according to Hume?
A. All of our sensory data
B. All thoughts we have, waking and sleeping
C. All of the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert
D. What we believe to know despite of our false sensory input
C. All of the contents of our minds when we are awake and alert
The two types of knowledge, according to Hume, are
A. Truths of reason and matters of fact
B. Senses and god
C. Logic and experimentation
D. God and experimentation
A. Truths of reason and matters of fact
Hume thought that cause and effect
A. Was the most important way of gaining knowledge
B. Showed an overwhelmingly strong correlation
C. Was of little importance
D. Isn’t based on reason
D. Isn’t based on reason
T/F Every simple idea is based on a simple impression.
True
Is Hume a skeptic?
Hume is not an antecedent skeptic as Descartes was, which is to say that while Hume finds it of utmost importance to doubt what we believe and what we discover, we should be able to actually learn things based on truths of reason and matters of fact. Through these, we can gain knowledge. Hume is a skeptic, but not of the most radical nature.
In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith said that
A. Man is obligated to pursue his own self-interests
B. Man is guided in his choices by an invisible hand
C. Government should oversee the economy.
D. Social wealth comes from education rather than physical products
B. Man is guided in his choices by an invisible hand
Reid taught that
A. Our nature is such that we assume cause and effect
B. Cause and effect are not reasonable
C. Existence is based on our ideas
D. There is nothing in reality but matter and motion
A. Our nature is such that we assume cause and effect
According to Kant, synthetic knowledge is
A. Knowledge obtained through invalid logic
B. Knowledge that is false
C. Knowledge gained through experience
D. Knowledge that cannot be demonstrated through experimentation
C. Knowledge gained through experience
T/F Butler definitively proved ethical egoism
False
Describe analytic knowledge, according to Kant
Analytic knowledge is knowledge that is innate, and is based primarily off of definitions. Analytic knowledge is usually a priori, so that even without experience, this knowledge can be had. Mathematics are an example of analytic knowledge because their truthfulness is determined by their definitions.
Which of the following is not a position of Thomas Reid?
A. Empiricists viewed the mind as being too passive.
B. Berkeley’s ideas are too contrary to common sense.
C. We never encounter ‘ideas’ in our inward reflections.
D. Berkeley’s argument concerning perceptual relativity is accurate.
D. Berkeley’s argument concerning perceptual relativity is accurate.
Hume’s idea of sympathy is best illustrated by which of the following examples
A. Picking up someone’s books.
B. The emotional unity that occurs at a concert or sporting event.
C. A hug.
D. The instance of passion overriding reason.
B. The emotional unity that occurs at a concert or sporting event.
Which of the following is not one of Kant’s classifications of judgments?
A. A priori
B. A posteriori
C. Universal
D. Analytic
C. Universal
. True or False: Adam Smith advocated for the redistribution of wealth.
True
. Describe the Law of the Excluded Middle.
The law of the Excluded Middle is based around mathematical proofs, assuming that a statement is either true or false. It cannot be somewhere in between.
What are Kant’s classifications of judgements?
A. epistomological and semantic
B. a priori, a posteriori, analytic, and synthetic
C. a priori and a posteriori
D. semantic, analytic, and synthetic
B. a priori, a posteriori, analytic, and synthetic
What are the two tests Kant suggests to tell the difference between a priori knowledge and a posteriori knowledge?
A. continuity and necessity
B. observation and experience
C. necessity and universality
D. experience and universality
C. necessity and universality
According to Kant, what is a maxim?
A. rules that express the subjective intention of the agent doing the action
B. a short statement expressing a general truth or rule of conduct
C. a proverbial saying
D. common beliefs that we must hold
A. rules that express the subjective intention of the agent doing the action
. T/F- In his ontological argument, Kant’s purpose is to make atheism possible.
False
What is George Berkeley’s Proof for the Existence of God?
1. My ideas have to be caused by myself, other ideas, material things, or by God.
2. material things don’t cause ideas
3. ideas are inert, I don’t cause my ideas
4. Thus, God causes our ideas.
What is the difference between Hume’s and Smith’s idea of sympathy?
A. there is no difference, Smith agrees with Hume
B. Hume argues that sympathy is a matter of contagion and Smith argues it is a matter of imagination
C. Hume thinks sympathy is a matter of contagion and Smith believed it does no exist.
D. none of the above
B. Hume argues that sympathy is a matter of contagion and Smith argues it is a matter of imagination
What was Thomas Reid’s main problem with Berkeley’s argument?
A. he believes it will lead to conclusions contradictory of the beliefs of ordinary people
B. nothing, Reid agrees with Berkeley
C. he disagrees with Berkeley’s ordinary language analysis
D. he believes Berkeley is disregarding the scientific method and empiricism.
A. he believes it will lead to conclusions contradictory of the beliefs of ordinary people
Which philosopher develops an argument against psychological egoism?
A. Adam Smith
B. George Berkeley
C. Emmanuel Kant
D. Joseph Butler
D. Joseph Butler
T/F- According to Smith, our ordinary language is revelatory of our internal mental states.
False
Briefly describe Thomas Reid’s final conclusion in regards to his ordinary language analysis.
Our knowledge is not enough to know how perception works, however, we should pay attention to common sense which is constituted of beliefs which people must have by virtue of their constitution.
True or False: Things have only absolute worth.
false
An autonomous will must be one that is __________
A. Rational
B. Acting
C. Free
D. Moral
Free
Which of the following is NOT a feature that is necessary for the moral law:
A. It must abstract from everything empirical.
B. It must make no reference to consequences of actions.
C. It must be independent of inclinations.
D. It cannot be capable of inspiring respect.
D. It cannot be capable of inspiring respect.
Which of the following can NOT be classified as an action on the assumption that rational respect for law can motivate persons to do their duty?
A. As done from inclination, but contrary to duty.
B. As done from calculated self-interest but according to duty.
C. As done from a direct inclination but according to duty.
D. Never done from duty.
D. Never done from duty.
Plato argues that the just man is the happy man. What is Kant’s take on the connection between morality and happiness?
Answer: If happiness correlates with the satisfaction of desires, there is no guarantee that moral goodness will match perfectly with happiness. He believes that although happiness may not correlate perfectly with a good will, that’s the way it should be.
True/ False- Kant argues that concepts/ categories are nothing but forms of thought.
true
Which of the following is not a premise for Berkley’s argument against direct realism?
A. Pains and pleasures exist only in minds.
B. All degrees of heat are equally real.
C. The most intense heat is a very great pain.
D. All pain exists everywhere.
D. All pain exists everywhere.
Which of the following is a capacity of the rational mind according to Kant?
A. Understanding
B. Falseness
C. Empathy
D. Misunderstanding
A. Understanding
Kant’s argument for God’s existence suggests that every judgment of existence is
A. Analytic
B. A contradiction
C. Synthetic
D. Real
C. Synthetic
How do you form a Humean causal belief by experience?
Answer: A, then B; A, then B; A, then B; A, then B; A, then B etc.
Now, whenever A happens, I come to expect B.
Hume’s idea of personal identity is:
a. Merely a bundle of perceptions
b. A continues memory
c. A lively impression of self
d. A thinking thing
a. Merely a bundle of perceptions
Morality, for Hume, is rooted primarily in:
a. Reason
b. Relations of Ideas
c. Matters of Fact
d. Sympathy, which is a faculty
d. Sympathy, which is a faculty
Analytic statements are those which:
a. Are independent of all experience
b. The predicate is wholly contained within the subject
c. Are known through experience
d. Provides additional information about the world
b. The predicate is wholly contained within the subject
. The two criterion for a priori knowledge are contingency and universality: True or False
False
Outline Hume’s first argument concerning morality (Hume’s Fork):
(I) If Morality is based on reason, then it is either a Matter of Fact or a Relation of Idea
(II) Morality is not a ROI -Moral propositions (multivalent) have different properties than math propositions (bivalent).
(III) Morality is not an MOF -This is due to a fact/value distinction. We can never get at moral value from blunt fact.
(IV) Therefore, morality is not based on reason
What are Kant’s two tests?
A) a priori and a postiori
B) Necessity and universality
C) Cause and Effect
D) Time and Space
B) Necessity and universality
A Pure intuitions according to Kant would be?
A) Sensations
B) God
C) Space and Time
D) A unicorn
C) Space and Time
Jean Jacques Rouseau’s most famous work was entitled?
A) The Social Contract
B) Discourses on Method
C) State of Nature
D) His ideas were never formalized in one written work.
A) The Social Contract
True or False: Kant defines Ideas of Pure reason and concepts requiring interpretation by our senses.
False
Explain the difference between Kant’s two forms of imperatives
Hypothetical Imperative: “if you want x in circumstance C, do A
Categorical imperative: “Do A (in circumstances C)
Which of the following category of judgements does Kant believe to be “empty”?
A. Analytic a priori
B. Analytic a posteriori
C. Synthetic a posteriori
D. Synthetic a priori
B. Analytic a posteriori
What is Kant’s general term for the contents of the mind?
A. Sensibility
B. Understanding
C. Representation
D. Concepts
C. Representation
The representation of a unicorn would fall under which kind of representation according to Kant?
A. Intuitions, Pure
B. Intuitions, Empirical
C. Concepts, Pure
D. Concepts, Empirical
D. Concepts, Empirical
(T/F) According to Kant, time is the pure intuition that makes mathematics possible.
A. True
B. False
True
Explain in your own words what Kant means by “Analytic Judgement”?
A judgement is analytic when its denial yields a contradiction.
Which of the following is an example of basic a posteriori knowledge?
A. Two halves make a whole.
B. The bluebird has wings.
C. Speaking is communicating.
D. Touching a hot stove hurts.
D. Touching a hot stove hurts.
Which of the following are the two types of representations that Kant identifies?
A. Complex and simple
B. Pure and empiricial
C. Analytic and synthetic
D. A priori and a posteriori
B. Pure and empiricial
In regards to action, Kant believes:
A. In a strong noncausal view
B. In a weaker compatibilist view
C. An act can be both free and determined
D. Acts are neither free nor determined
C. An act can be both free and determined
T/F Immanuel Kant was inspired to philosophical meditation from his extensive travels around Europe.
False. Kant never traveled far from home. Rather, Hume’s book A Treatise in Human Nature woke him from his “dogmatic slumber.”
How does Kant define a concept?
Kant does not see concepts as necessarily having any sense-experience related information associated with them. To him, a concept is the understanding of an object specific enough to be able to recognize and categorize things accordingly. For instance, the concept of a viper and being able to distinguish between vipers and non-vipers among animals and cars. It is not necessary to have seen a viper or have touched one to be able to apply the definition to something before you.
Kant is most interesting in showing the existence of:
a. Analytic a priori knowledge
b. Synthetic a priori knowledge
c. Analytic a posteriori knowledge
d. Synthetic a posteriori knowledge
b. Synthetic a priori knowledge
Kant uses the intuitions of space and time to prove:
a. Ethics
b. Hume’s theory of causation
c. Mathematics
d. Physics
c. Mathematics
Kant bases his ethical system upon:
a. Reason
b. Sympathy
c. Greatest benefit
d. Doctrine
REason
Kant’s primary catalyst for the Critique of Pure Reason was David Hume: True/False
True
Define Kant’s categorical imperative.
The categorical imperative is this: “Act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”
Of all the options below, which one is NOT found in Kant’s judgement matrix?
a) analytic
b) a priori
c) synthetic
d) categorical
d) categorical
True or False, Kant used a dove as an example for outer space.
True
Immanuel Kant considers that the only thing good without qualification is what?
a) high morals
b) virtuous deeds
c) clear truths
d) a good will
a good will
According to Kant, what is defined as a concept?
a) an idea from experience
b) a complex statement
c) a rule for operating on intuitions
d) the application of an idea
c) a rule for operating on intuitions
Please describe or define Kant’s version of analytic knowledge?
It is knowledge that is innate and based off of definitions. Usually a priori, so even without experience this knowledge can be known. Or in his words, “a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept.”
Adam Smith is best described as a
A. Politian
B. Redistributionist
C. Communist
D. Doctor
B. Redistributionist
Adam Smith is best known for what work?
A. The Wealth of Nations
B. Redistribution: The Answer
C. Law of supply and demand
D. The Wealth of Countries
A. The Wealth of Nations
T/F Thomas Reid argues that appearance can’t be different from two different perspectives
True
According to Kant, analytic sentences are said to be by definition
A. False
B. True
C. Unsupported
D. Justifiable
True
What is psychological egoism, as described by Butler?
This is the idea that all of our actions are motivated by self-interest (we can’t even help it; our constitution is such that we must, as a matter of our nature, be self-interested). We are always bound to make decisions based on what we think is in our self-interest; it is a form of determinism. Our choices will ALWAYS be determined by our self-interest.
Which is NOT one of the features of the new science that came about in rejection of the medieval/Aristotelian view?
A) The loss of the scientific explanation of final causes.
B) Motion is a default state of objects
C) Objects lost the desire for a location that they used to possess.
D) All of these are features of the new science
D) All of these are features of the new science
Being empiricists, Hobbes and Locke believed that
A) Men are born with innate ideas common among all.
B) God is a being separate of al substance and in anthropomorphic form.
C) Everything learned by men comes first through the senses.
D) Mathematical truths are the only things truly known
C) Everything learned by men comes first through the senses.
True/False the notion of free will, to John Locke, is paramount to all other philosophical principles.
False
The existence of two things, Locke conceded, could be known from a source other than the senses?
A) Matter and substance
B) God and ourselves
C) Mind and extension
D) Time and space
How did Locke and Berkeley disagree as pertaining to the formation of ideas in the mind?
Locke believed that simple ideas were formed by sensation, eventually complex ideas and then abstract ideas in which the attributes of something are pulled entirely from its other attributes. We understand all of its facets and yet none of them at once. Berkeley believed that the things found in sensation are perceived exactly as they are and are not formed into abstract ideas but furthermore those physical objects, as ideas, depend on a spirit’s perception for their existence.
Enlightenment for man in the 17th century was considered
A) A greater understanding of God and his plan.
B) Man’s willingness to use his own understanding.
C) The rise of power in the Catholic church.
D) A technique used by the inquisition to make heretics confess.
B) Man’s willingness to use his own understanding.
Newton’s greatest influence, according to the book, was found in
A) His law of universal gravitation.
B) His suppositions on the motions of heavenly bodies.
C) His method. Staying close to the phenomenon and not explaining prematurely.
D) The rich philosophical debates between himself and Gotfreid Leibniz.
C) His method. Staying close to the phenomenon and not explaining prematurely.
According to David Hume our perceptions consist of
A) The monads we consist of perceiving the world
B) The whole of reality. There is nothing that is not a perception
C) Ideas that reflect previous impressions given by experience.
D) Primary and secondary ideas that come from corresponding qualities in objects.
C) Ideas that reflect previous impressions given by experience.
Hume stated that the self is nothing but a bundle of perceptions. True/False
True
What is Hume’s two pronged argument against cause and effect?
Hume states that none of our ideas about cause and effect are based on reason. We develop and idea of constant conjunction through experience but can’t get a full understanding of necessary conjunction. It eludes our understanding because we can’t empirically sense the causes behind the effects around us.
Berkeley’s conclusion against direct realism states that
A) Heat exists only in the perceiving mind, not as a property of an object.
B) Cause and Effect is an irrational argument
C) Our mind interacts with an object and it physically causes change as we also can change it by perceiving it.
D) Nothing is directly observable because God is already observing the object and an object can only exist in the thoughts of one perceiver at once. We may only have impressions of objects.
A) Heat exists only in the perceiving mind, not as a property of an object.
The argument that Hume makes against Cause and Effect is that it is not based on reason because it does not consist of either
A) Primary or secondary qualities impressed on us by objects in the physical world
B) Matters of fact or relations of ideas
C) Impressions or ideas
D) A priori or synthetic statements
B) Matters of fact or relations of ideas
Adam Smith’s argument for human emotions contains the idea that
A) All people truly act in their best self interest even if they think they are not
B) By acting in their own self interest they will actually help people around them in the best way possible. We ought to look out only for our best self interest.
C) All emotion comes from within as result of matter in motion and the satiation of desires.
D) We are emotionally connected with those around us because we see their plight and can imagine ourselves in their shoes.
D) We are emotionally connected with those around us because we see their plight and can imagine ourselves in their shoes.
. True/False Thomas Reid gives an argument about perceiving the world around us that states that the objects don’t change shape as we perceive them, the objects just change appearance.
True
What are the critical points of Joseph Butler’s argument against psychological egoism and why is his argument considered more effective than others that try to argue against such egoism?
Joseph Butler, rather than providing counter-examples against psychological egoism, argued that the logic of psychological egoism is false. Instead of examples of altruism which do not meet the task of fighting this argument he says that we can’t be the object of our own desires or we would never act. We also gain satisfaction only from fulfilling our desires and we would not gain satisfaction from helping others unless we had a desire to do so in the first place.
Kant makes four distinctions about judgments but he explains at length judgments that contain more information than is held just in their subjects and are not dependent on experience. The classifications of these judgments are…
A) Analytic a priori
B) Analytic a posteriori
C) Synthetic a priori
D) Synthetic a posteriori
C) Synthetic a priori
Immanuel Kant, differing from many philosophers, believes that mathematics actually consists of which kind of judgments
A) Analytic a priori
B) Analytic a posteriori
C) Synthetic a priori
D) Synthetic a posteriori
C) Synthetic a priori
According to Kant, the concepts by which we understand and derive geometry and arithmetic are respectively
A) Time and Space
B) Space and Time
C) Cause and Effect
D) Empirical intuitions and Empirical concepts
B) Space and Time
True/ False Noumenon is something as it is impressed upon the senses or its appearance to us.
False
Explain Kant’s argument of why mathematics is a synthetic a priori judgment rather than an analytic judgment.
Kant claims that there is nothing in the answer of a mathematic equation that is not supplied by some other concept. Kant would claim that 3+4 alone does not get us to 7, in the equation 3+4 = 7, meaning the argument is synthetic. This answer is supplied by something impressed upon it by the mind, namely space and time. These are concepts independent of experience that we use to understand all phenomena around us. Mathematics is also considered an a priori judgment because it is known outside of experience and is necessary and universal. No amount of experience to the contrary can tell us it’s not true and a violation of mathematical relations necessitates a logical contradiction. These two points are why Kant considers mathematics a synthetic a priori judgement.
Who awakened Kant from his “dogmatic slumber”?

A. Joseph Butler
B. George Berkeley
C. David Hume
D. René Descartes

C. David Hume
What are Kant’s two main intuitions?

A. Time and space
B.Sensibility and understanding
C. Concept and representation
D. Relations of ideas and matters of fact

A. Time and space
Kant agrees with which of the following philosophers concerning free will?

A. David Hume
B. Thomas Hobbes
C. Baruch Spinoza
D. None of the above

D. None of the above
T/F: Ideas of pure reason are those ideas that are a priori concepts structuring our experiences.
False
How does Kant approach causation?
He claims that, because we live in a world of objects, all events have a cause. We know this, not through analytic, but through synthetic a priori judgements. This is because we know, through Hume’s arguments, that we can’t discover cause a posteriori.
Which form of government did the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes support?
A. Absolute Monarchy
B. Parliamentary Republic
C. Aristocracy
D. Reversion to the state of nature
A. Absolute Monarchy
What was the extent of human interaction in Hobbes view of the state of nature?
A. Peaceful coexistence.
B. Communal living.
C. Satisfying self-interests.
D. Constant warfare.
D. Constant warfare.
According to Locke’s view on the law of nature, we must not harm a person in his:
A. Person
B. Liberty
C. Property
D. None of the above
no answer indicated on Google Doc
How did Locke suppose man transcended from the state of nature to a state of government?
In an effort to protect their natural rights, humans would come together to create a social contract, in which, an organization was created with that sole purpose: to protect rights, and to punish those who infringe on another’s rights.
In Locke’s view on the state of nature, to protect natural rights, man must actually give up some rights. True/False
True
What shook Immanuel Kant from his “dogmatic slumber,” that led to him develop his philosophical ideas?
a. Reading Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature
b. Reading Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy
c. Contemplating during his daily walk through Königsberg
d. Insights from study as logician professor
a. Reading Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature
What best represents Adam Smith’s view on sympathy?
a. We all partake in a collective emotion
b. We alter our feelings to the emotional ideal by way of imagination
c. Our self-interest renders us incapable of sympathizing
d. None of the above
b. We alter our feelings to the emotional ideal by way of imagination
What was Kant’s “Copernican revolution” used to combat representational realism?
a. Objects must conform to knowledge
b. Knowledge must conform to objects
c. The heliocentric model of the universe alters our perception of reality
d. None of the above
a. Objects must conform to knowledge
A noumenon is something as it is in itself, independent of the way it reveals itself to us. True/False
True
What was Joseph Butler’s argument against psychological egoism?
Psychological egoism says that all human actions are motivated by self-interest. Self-interest isn’t a motivation towards any specific action. Therefore, our actions are based on more fundamental motivations. For example, we are all fundamentally motivated by hunger, through which we take on food as the object of our motivation. If the well-being of others is ever the object of our motivation, as Butler proved could be the case,d then psychological egoism is false.
T/F: Two formal features that enable humans to have intuitions and perceptions are time and space
True
Which of the following best represents Kant’s philosophy regarding the human ability to perceive?
a. The objects in the physical world directly interact with the mind
b. The mind creates a mental representation of objects we interact with
c. Objects are understood in relation to time and space
d. Base sensory data is organized in the mind
c. Objects are understood in relation to time and space
Which of the following statements would be considered synthetic according to Kant?
a. All bodies are extended.
b. All leathers are tanned animal hides.
c. All flowers are plants.
d. All bears are irritable.
d. All bears are irritable.
The epistemological distinction between which forms of knowledge are imperative to Kantian philosophy?
a. A priori
b. A posteriori
c. Analytic propositions
d. Both A and B
d. Both A and B
According to Kant, what is the categorical imperative and what role does that play in his moral philosophy?
The categorical imperative means that humans should act in a way that they would also want everyone else to act. Our moral obligations derive from duty. Only by obeying categorical imperatives in all circumstances can humans fully observe the moral law.
When Kant refers to ‘intuition’, what word better describes what he intends?
A. Perception
B. Feeling
C. Reason
D. Philosophy
A. Perception
Kant believes that Time and Space are _________________.
A. Pure Imagination
B. Awesome
C. Structures of the Mind
D. Innate Ideas
C. Structures of the Mind
Butler believed Psychological Egoism to be false partially because _____________.
A. It led to ethical egoism
B. It appears to answer all actions, but answers none
C. He hated Ayn Rand
D. He thought satisfaction was an end to achieve
B. It appears to answer all actions, but answers none
True/False: A Priori claims are universal and necessary.
True
Briefly describe the difference between Analytic and Synthetic claims.
Analytic claims are those in which the predicate is contained within the Subject, by definition. The Predicate adds nothing new to the Subject. Whereas Synthetic claims have the Predicate adding new knowledge to the Subject. Synthetic knowledge is often gained by experience, but according to Kant can also be gained by the mind creating knowledge.
What are the three stages of the State of Nature according to John Locke?
Stage 1 – Communal Ownership
Locke believes that we must acquire things in order to survive. We can latch onto segments of the world that we need in order to exist
Stage 2 – Mixing Labor with Soil
Through our own labor we devise ownership thorugh a mixture of our labor with the soil. That piece of land with which we mix our labor with the soil becomes ours.
Stage 3 – Money (Labor theory of value)
By assigning an exchange value using a commodity that does not perish (money) we are able to reduce waste and increase the efficiency of the use of the earth.
We ought not to harm another person in their person, in their liberty, in their heath or in their
a. Mind
b. Freedom
c. Property
d. Emotion
c. Property
True/False: John Locke claims that the only justification for property is that all individuals have a right to life and consequently a right to the land which provides food.
True
According to John Locke, which groups of individuals do not understand the law of contradiction?
a. Pharisees and Sadducees
b. Children and the elderly
c. Idiots and children
d. Followers of Aristotle and Plato
c. Idiots and children
Which of the following correlates with Berkeley’s view of humans in relation to God?
a. There is nothing physical we only exist in the perception of God, but we do exist as perceived beings.
b. God mediates occasionally between our minds and bodies.
c. A priori knowledge suggests that human reasoning is superior to God.
d. God does not exist but is a being conceived by the human intellect.
a. There is nothing physical we only exist in the perception of God, but we do exist as perceived beings.
According to Hume’s fork, there are two kinds of knowledge: truths of reason (a priori) and those that we gain directly from our senses.T/F
True
What does Berkeley use to counter Locke’s argument on representational realism?
a. Direct Realism and Perceptual Relativity
b. Direct Realism and Representational Duality
c. Material Relativity and Perceptual Relativity
d. Perceptual Relativity and Representational Duality
a. Direct Realism and Perceptual Relativity
How does Berkeley try to demonstrate the existence of God?
a. He tries to ground the metaphysical system by giving the argument for other people’s minds.
b. He upholds the medieval view of the existence of God and does not offer any other arguments.
c. Berkeley denies the existence of God and does not demonstrate his existence.
d. Berkeley shares the platonic view of God with the protestants.
a. He tries to ground the metaphysical system by giving the argument for other people’s minds.
John Adams was influenced by the writings of:
a. John Locke
b. Machiavelli
c. Adam Smith
d. Descartes
c. Adam Smith
How does Adam Smith’s explanation of sympathy differ from Hume’s?
Adam Smith enlarges and makes more rich Hume’s theory of moral sentiments. Hume says that we get caught up in the shared emotions of people. In a way those emotions are contagious. Smith says that sympathy is different and that when we sympathize with another it is as a result of imagination. We imagine ourselves in the position of another being.
Kant makes an epistomological distinction between which two types of understanding?
a. A priori and propositional
b. Analytical and propositional
c. A priori and a posterior
d. Theoretical and realistic
c. A priori and a posterior
What is the difference between a synthetic proposition and an analytic proposition?
In a synthetic proposition, the predicate contains more information than found in the subject. In analytic knowledge the predicate adds no new information to the sentence than what was already found in the subject.
Butler’s circular argument is founded on the principle that our actions are motivated by
a. Sympathy
b. Self-interest
c. Attraction
d. Theoretical understanding
b. Self-interest
Philosophers claim that Butler’s circular argument can be effectively rebutted by posing many counter-examples against it.
False
By extension, which branch of philosophy loses its footing when psychological egoism is disproven?
a. Metaphysical awareness
b. Sympathetic reasoning
c. Ethical egoism
d. Specific egoism
c. Ethical egoism
Why did Kant say that his theory of knowledge parallels Copernicus’ work in astronomy?

A Copernicus postulated the existence of a sun; Kant also postulated the existence of a central organizing force for moral theory.
B The simpler mathematics of Copernicus’ solar system parallel the simpler theories of empiricism and a priori knowledge that Kant invents.
C Copernicus was revolutionary in his field because of his excellent grasp of mathematics, and Kant was revolutionary because of his excellent grasp of logic.
D Just as Copernicus calculated that the erratic movement of heavenly bodies is only a perception created by the mind, so our processing of sensory data depends on how our minds perceive it.

D Just as Copernicus calculated that the erratic movement of heavenly bodies is only a perception created by the mind, so our processing of sensory data depends on how our minds perceive it.
According to Kant, arithmetic is grounded in which “intuition” of synthetic a priori knowledge?

A Time
B Space
C Cause & Effect
D God

Time
Kant argues that the idea of the human soul, of objects having a true objective existence, and of God arise naturally in human beings; he calls them Ideas of Pure Reason. Why does he say these ideas arise?

A Our infrequent encounters with spiritual phenomena guide us to these pure ideas.
B Human reason naturally searches for overarching explanations for all human experience.
C They originated as ways for priestly classes to exercise control over lower classes.
D Human beings naturally want to tell stories, and these concepts rose out of ancient stories.

B Human reason naturally searches for overarching explanations for all human experience.
T / F Immanuel Kant argues that our “knowledge” of cause and effect is synthetic because it is not necessarily included in the empirical definition of an event, not a posteriori because it cannot be deduced from experience, and a priori because we nevertheless organize all our human experience by it.
True
Explain in a few sentences how Kant contends that free will is not necessarily determined (as suggested by Hume and Hobbes) yet still connects it to the concept of cause and effect.
To begin with, Kant acknowledges that the sticky problem of free will is one of those Ideas of Pure Reason that are impossible to know because they are outside our sense experience. However, he argues that our minds naturally gravitate to the idea of having free will; in fact, his moral philosophy relies on the assumption that we indeed have freedom to choose. To defend this argument, Kant proposes that reason can be considered the motivation for some of our action—in other words, we can begin a state of being spontaneously, which then inspires an action. That action then becomes part of the chain of cause and effect—it is caused by reason and in turn affects other events in the physical world.
A hypothetical imperative has this form?
A. Do A (in circumstance C)
B. If you want x in circumstance C, do A
C. If x is true in circumstance C, then A is true also
D. If x can be true in circumstance C, then A must be true
B. If you want x in circumstance C, do A
When dealing with the Ontological Argument, Kant _______?
A. Takes the position of an atheist.
B. Wants to make atheism possible
C. Does not believe that the logic is sound
D. Does not know if he believes in God
C. Does not believe that the logic is sound
Which of the following is NOT a capacity of the rational mind according to Kant?
A. Sensibility
B. Understanding
C. Representations
D. Reasoning
C. Representations
(T/F) According to Kant, sensibility is an active power.
False
Give an example of a Maxim
“Let me now keep the promise I made yesterday,” or “Let me now break the promise I made yesterday.”
Geometry and Math exist, respectively, in which of the following?
A. Time and Space
B. Space and Time
C. A priori knowledge
D. A posteriori knowledge
B. Space and Time
Why does Kant believe we cannot know an object at all?
A. We can, actually.
B. We cannot trust our senses
C. We cannot know an object as it is in itself.
D. We cannot accurately communicate to others the sensory input we receive.
C. We cannot know an object as it is in itself.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the matrix of representations?
A. Necessity
B. Intuitions
C. Pure
D. Empirical
A. Necessity
T/F Kant believes that experiential knowledge is a prerequisite for having knowledge of a concept.
False. Kant believes that a concept requires no “sensuous content.”
According to Kant, how are mathematics synthetic propositions?
The definition of an analytic proposition is that the predicate is contained in the subject. In the case of math, the sum of a problem is not inherently clear in the problem itself. Rather, it takes the reference of an outside concept—for instance fingers and toes or quantifiable physical objects—to deduce the total. Regardless of whether it is done physically or mentally, the need for intuition in the solving of a math problem is what makes mathematics synthetic.
T/F: The truths of Mathematics are necessary.
True
Which of the following is NOT one of the four judgements of Kant?
A. Analytic a priori
B. Analytic a posteriori
C. Analytic Geometry
D. Synthetic a posteriori
C. Analytic Geometry
Kant suggests that objects of experience are the result of a construction by the rational mind based on whose scientific theory?
A. Copernicus
B. Einstein
C. Hawking
D. Newton
A. Copernicus
What is Kent’s general term for the contents of the mind?
A.Representation
B.Thoughts
C.Ideas
D.Images
A.Representation
Why can’t we experience an apple as it is in itself?
Because part of what it is to be an apple is to be in space and space is an aspect of our experience.
T/F: Butler and Hume believe Psychological egosim to be true
False
According to Kant, an attempt to understand the fundamental nature of the self by rational reflection on what the self must be is
A. rational psychology
B. empirical psychology
C. conditional psychology
A. rational psychology
1+1=2 is what kind of relationship?
A. Necessary
B. Intuitive
C. Romantic
D. Causal
Necessary
Select all that apply; Who was not mentioned extensively in the text
A. Adam Smith
B. Immanuel Kant
C. David Hume
D. Joseph Butler
A. Adam Smith
D. Joseph Butler
Give an example of an analytic statement
All bachelors are unmarried men.
. True /False. I am the same person I was ten years ago, even though everything about me has changed (fears, hopes, memories, etc).
True
Which of the following, according to Hume, is a contradiction?
A. The sun will not rise tomorrow
B. Natalie, a vegetarian, will not meat
C. The grass will not grow if I water it everyday
D. Two plus two is five.
D. Two plus two is five.
Consider the argument from design: The world works similarly to a machine. A machine requires an inventor. Therefore, the world has a designer. Which of the following is another problematic conclusion to this syllogism?
A. Machines are made by mortals, therefore god is a mortal.
B. Sometimes machines are created by wicked people. Therefore god may be wicked.
C. Many people work together to make a machine. Therefore many gods may have made the world.
D. All of the above are problematic conclusions to the syllogism.
D. All of the above are problematic conclusions to the syllogism.
Which of the following, according to Hume, is a motivator?
A. Morality
B. Passion
C. Reason
D. God
Passion
Describe the difference between an impression and an idea.
An impression is the comprehension of a sensation. An idea is the memory of that same sensation. An impression is inherently more real than an idea.
. True/False. Butler argues against egoism in part because all of our decisions are motivated by basic desires, some of which are put in place for the well-being of others.
True
What is a critique?
A. An argument against something
B. An argument for something
C. An attempt to understand what makes knowledge possible
D. None of the above
C. An attempt to understand what makes knowledge possible
What is a prior knowledge?
A. Something known to be true through experience
B. Something known to be true without experience
C. Something whose denial is an inherent contradiction
D. Something whose denial is not an inherent contradiction
B. Something known to be true without experience
Define phenomena
A. Things as they appear to us
B. Things as they really are
C. Things as God sees them
D. Things as God intended for us to see them
A. Things as they appear to us
Describe the difference between understanding and sensibility
Sensibility is the ability to receive impressions; a passive power. Understanding is an active power to think of objects using concepts.
True/False. Kant believes that intuitions are sense perceptions.
True
Define an analytic statement
A. One where the subject contains more knowledge than the predicate
B. One where the subject does not contain more knowledge than the predicate
C. Something that requires sense experience
D. Something that does not require sense experience
B. One where the subject does not contain more knowledge than the predicate
According to Hume, which of the following describes a matter of fact?
A. Something directly perceivable by our sense
B. Something governed by the law of contradiction
C. Most math concepts
D. Something we can explain to others
A. Something directly perceivable by our sense
What does “necessary” mean as discussed in class?
A. Important for survival
B. Important for happiness
C. Important for salvation
D. One cannot exist without the other
D. One cannot exist without the other
Kant uses a matrix to describe analytic, synthetic, a priori, and a posteriori. Describe the various combinations that come from these.
Analytic a priori -something true by definition that does not require experiences. For example, 2 + 2 = 4.
Analytic a posteriori- something true by definition that does require sense experience. Nothing fits in this field.
Synthetic a priori- something that adds to our knowledge that does not come from senses. Structures of our mind can organize our old experiences.
Synthetic a posteriori- something that requires sense experience that adds to out knowledge. Most sciences.
True/False. Kant is a consequentialist
False
Which of the following is an analytic proposition?

A. It was raining in London on June 25, 2007
B. No sphere is a cube
C. David Hume never married
D. The Pacific Ocean is larger than the Atlantic Ocean

B. No sphere is a cube
Which of the following most accurately summarizes Bishop Butler’s argument about psychological egoism?

A. In order for psychological egoism to be true, we have to empirically examine the motives of every single person on earth. This is impossible, hence, psychological egoism is false
B. Psychological egoism is true, as whenever we do something, we are motivated by our strongest desire and our strongest desire is always to pursue self-interest
C. Whenever we do something, we expect to be better off. If we expect to be better off as a result, we must be aiming to promote our self-interest. Therefore, psychological egoism must be true.
D. Psychological egoism is conceptually flawed–if the only object of our desires is self-interest, there would be no action.

D. Psychological egoism is conceptually flawed–if the only object of our desires is self-interest, there would be no action.
Which of the following is correct about the difference between psychological and ethical egoism?

A. There is no difference—they are different names for the same theory
B. Ethical egoism is a theory about human motivation. Psychological egoism, on the other hand, is a moral theory.
C. Psychological egoism is a theory about human motivation. Ethical egoism, on the other hand, is a moral theory
D. Psychological egoism is the view that all human actions are motivated by self-interest. Ethical egoism is completely different; it’s a metaphysical theory that states that all things are physical.

C. Psychological egoism is a theory about human motivation. Ethical egoism, on the other hand, is a moral theory
Kant distinguishes between acting according to duty and acting from duty. What is the difference?
Acting according to duty means doing the right thing. Acting from duty means doing the right thing because it’s right.
What two criterion does Kant use to distinguish a priori knowledge from a posteriori knowledge?
A) necessity
B) universality
C) Both A and B
D) None of the above
C) Both A and B
What is Kant’s term for the contents of the mind?
A) representation
B) understanding
C) substance
D) intelligence
A) representation
What did Kant call Descartes’ psychology?
A) empirical psychology
B) skeptic psychology
C) introspective psychology
D) rational psychology
D) rational psychology
True or False: Christian Wolff was heavily influenced by Immanuel Kant
False
Describe Kant’s ideas of pure reason
Kant believed there were ideas that came from outside our range of experience. These things included concepts like God and the soul. These ideas came from reason. Once we reach the bounds of experience, reason questions further, and this gives rise to the ideas of pure reason.
Which of the following options below is FALSE about Berkeley?

a) He thought that Locke’s views led directly to the errors of skepticism and the evils of atheism.
b) He was a determined defender of common sense.
c) He argued against the distinction between secondary qualities and primary qualities.
d) He believed that abstract ideas were the only ideas worth studying.

d) He believed that abstract ideas were the only ideas worth studying.
Locke classified complex ideas into three separate categories, which of the following options below does NOT belong?

a) Relations
b) Modes
c) Substances
d) Properties

Properties
According to Bacon, which of the following is NOT identified as one of the four “idols” that have hindered the advance of knowledge?

a) Idols of the tribe
b) Idols of the marketplace
c) Idols of the earth
d) Idols of the den

c) Idols of the earth (correct answer: idols of the theater)
True or False? According to Hobbes, sensation is the source of all our thoughts.
True
The method of resolution and composition was created by whom? Furthermore, describe that method.
It was created by Hobbes. Resolution consists in the analysis of complex wholes into simple elements. Whereas, composition is when the elements are reassembled, or composed again into a whole. Basically, he describes how you have to understand the smaller aspects of a method in order to get an idea of how it all works together.
True or False, Hobbes was an
epiphenomenalism.
True

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