Pharmacology Chapter 2

7. Highly protein-bound drugs

a. increase the risk of drug-drug interactions.

b. typically provide a short duration of action.

c. must be administered with 8 ounces of water.

d. have a decreased effect in patients with a low albumin level.

a. increase the risk of drug-drug interactions.
8. To achieve the most rapid onset of action, the health care provider will prescribe the medication to be administered by which route?

a. Subcutaneously

b. Intravenously

c. Intramuscularly

d. Intrathecally

b. Intravenously
9. Patients with renal failure would most likely have problems with drug

a. excretion.

b. absorption.

c. metabolism.

d. distribution.

a. excretion.
10. What is the ratio between a drug’s therapeutic effects and toxic effects called?

a. Tolerance

b. Cumulative effect

c. Therapeutic index

d. Affinity

c. Therapeutic index
11. When a patient asks the nurse why a lower dose of intravenous pain medication is being given than the previous oral dose, what knowledge will the nurse draw on to respond to the patient?

a. Medications given intravenously are not affected by the first-pass effect.

b. Medications given orally bypass the portal circulatory system.

c. A large percentage of an intravenously administered drug is metabolized into inactive metabolites in the liver.

d. Drugs administered intravenously enter the portal system prior to systemic distribution.

a. Medications given intravenously are not affected by the first-pass effect.
12. The nurse understands that drugs exert their actions on the body by (Select all that apply.)

a. interacting with receptors.

b. making the cell perform a new function.

c. inhibiting the action of a specific enzyme.

d. altering metabolic chemical processes.

a. interacting with receptors.

c. inhibiting the action of a specific enzyme.

d. altering metabolic chemical processes.

13. The nurse needs to be aware that which factors will affect the absorption of orally administered medications? (Select all that apply.)

a. Presence of food in the stomach

b. pH of the stomach

c. Patient position upon intake of medication

d. Form of drug preparation

e. Time of day

a. Presence of food in the stomach

b. pH of the stomach

d. Form of drug preparation

e. Time of day

14. An elderly woman took a prescription medicine to help her to sleep; however, she felt restless all night and did not sleep at all. The nurse recognizes that this woman has experienced which type of reaction or effect?

a Allergic reaction

b Idiosyncratic reaction

c Mutagenic effect

d Synergistic effect

b Idiosyncratic reaction
15. While caring for a patient with cirrhosis or hepatitis, the nurse knows that abnormalities in which phase of pharmacokinetics may occur?

a Absorption

b Distribution

c Metabolism

d Excretion

c Metabolism
16. A patient who has advanced cancer is receiving opioid medications around the clock to “keep him comfortable” as he nears the end of his life. Which term best describes this type of therapy?

a Palliative therapy

b Maintenance therapy

c Supportive therapy

d Supplemental therapy

a Palliative therapy
17. The nurse is giving medications to a patient in heart failure. The intravenous route is chosen instead of the intramuscular route. The nurse knows that the factor that most influences the decision about which route to use is the patient’s

a altered biliary function.

b increased glomerular filtration.

c reduced liver metabolism.

d diminished circulation.

d diminished circulation.
18. A patient has just received a prescription for an enteric-coated stool softener. When teaching the patient, the nurse should include which statement?

a “Take the tablet with 2 to 3 ounces of orange juice.”

b “Avoid taking all other medications with any enteric-coated tablet.”

c “Crush the tablet before swallowing if you have problems with swallowing.”

d “Be sure to swallow the tablet whole without chewing it.”

d “Be sure to swallow the tablet whole without chewing it.”
19. Each statement describes a phase of pharmacokinetics. Put the statements in order, with 1 indicating the phase that occurs first and 4 indicating the phase that occurs last.

a Enzymes in the liver transform the drug into an inactive metabolite.

b Drug metabolites are secreted through passive glomerular filtration into the renal tubules.

c A drug binds to the plasma protein albumin and circulates through the body.

d A drug moves from the intestinal lumen into the mesenteric blood system.

d A drug moves from the intestinal lumen into the mesenteric blood system.

c A drug binds to the plasma protein albumin and circulates through the body.

a Enzymes in the liver transform the drug into an inactive metabolite.

b Drug metabolites are secreted through passive glomerular filtration into the renal tubules.

20. A drug that delivers 500 mg has a half-life of 4 hours. How many milligrams of drug will remain in the body after 1 half-life?
250mg
1. What is the study of the physiochemical properties of drugs and how they influence the body called?

a. Pharmacokinetics

b. Pharmacotherapeutics

c. Pharmacodynamics

d. Pharmacology

c. Pharmacodynamics
2. Pharmacokinetics involves the study of

a. physiologic interactions of drugs.

b. distribution rates among various body compartments.

c. interactions between various drugs.

d. adverse reactions to medications.

b. distribution rates among various body compartments.
3. What is an alternate name for biotransformation of a drug?

a. Absorption

b. Dilution

c. Excretion

d. Metabolism

d. Metabolism
4. A drug given by which route is altered by the first-pass effect?

a. Sublingual

b. Subcutaneous

c. Oral

d. Intravenous

c. Oral
5. Drug half-life is defined as the amount of time required for 50% of a drug to

a. be absorbed by the body.

b. exert a response.

c. be eliminated by the body.

d. reach a therapeutic level.

c. be eliminated by the body.
6. Which action, when performed by the nurse, will increase the absorption of a medication administered intramuscularly?

a. Applying cold packs to the injection site

b. Lowering the extremity below the level of the heart

c. Administering the medication via the Z-track method

d. Massaging the site after injection

d. Massaging the site after injection

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