Pharm ATI Cardiovascular System (drills & post test)

A patient is taking bumetanide (Bumex) and spironolactone (Aldactone). You should explain that using the drugs together may reduce the risk of which of the following adverse effects?
A) Hypokalemia
B) Hyponatremia
C) Hyperglycemia
D) Hypochloremia
A) Hypokalemia
A patient is about to begin taking hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide) for hypertension. To assess for adverse effects of the drug, you should monitor for which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A) Ototoxicity
B) Hyponatremia
C) Hypokalemia
D) Dehydration
E) Hypoglycemia
B) Hyponatremia
C) Hypokalemia
D) Dehydration
You are reviewing the history of a patient who is about to begin doxazosin (Cardura) therapy to treat hypertension. Which of the following drugs the patient takes require further action?
A) Cimetidine (Tagamet)
B) Zolpidem (Ambien)
C) Ibuprofen (Motrin)
D) Sildenafil (Viagra)
D) Sildenafil (Viagra)
While talking with a patient who is taking captopril (Capoten) to treat hypertension, which of the following instructions should you include to help her manage the drug’s adverse effects?
A) Check your heart rate prior to taking the drug.
B) Wear sunscreen and protective clothing while outdoors.
C) Do not use salt substitutes to season your food.
D) Take the drug on an empty stomach.
C) Do not use salt substitutes to season your food.
A patient taking losartan (Cozaar) for hypertension asks about stopping contraception and starting a family. You should inform the patient that losartan is unsafe to take during pregnancy due to which of the following risks?
A) Macrosomia
B) Fetal injury
C) Gestational diabetes
D) Thromboembolic disease
B) Fetal injury
A patient is about to begin taking aliskiren (Tekturna) to treat hypertension. Which of the following should you tell the patient to avoid to ensure optimal absorption of this drug?
A) Soy sauce
B) Green, leafy vegetables
C) Fatty foods
D) Foods high in carbohydrates
C) Fatty foods
While instructing a patient about using isosorbide (Isordil) to treat angina, you should advise the patient to avoid
A) milk.
B) caffeine.
C) alcohol.
D) grapefruit juice.
C) alcohol.
Quinidine
Sodium channel blocker that treats supraventricular and ventricular dysrhythmias
Propranolol (Inderal)
Beta adrenergic blocker that controls atrial and ventricular tachycardia
Amiodarone (Cordarone)
Potassium channel blocker that treats ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia
Verapamil (Calan)
Calcium channel blocker that treats supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation or flutter
You are caring for a patient who is taking oral amiodarone (Cordarone) to treat atrial fibrillation. You should advise the patient to watch for and report which of the following? (Select all that apply.)
A) Cough
B) Blurred vision
C) Dizziness
D) Sore throat
E) Fever
A) Cough
B) Blurred vision
C) Dizziness
E) Fever
A patient’s atrial dysrhythmia fails to respond to other antidysrhythmia therapies. You should anticipate that the primary care provider might try which of the following drugs whose off-label use includes refractory atrial dysrhythmias?
A) Propranolol (Inderal)
B) Lidocaine (Xylocaine)
C) Flecainide (Tambocor)
D) Amiodarone (Cordarone)
C) Flecainide (Tambocor)
Recognizing the potential for a drug interaction between the diuretic, furosemide (Lasix), and the cardiac glycoside, digoxin (Lanoxin), the provider should plan to monitor the patient for which of the following?
A) Hyperkalemia
B) Ototoxicity
C) Digoxin toxicity
D) Hypoglycemia
C) Digoxin toxicity
Digoxin (Lanoxin) is effective in treating heart failure due to which of the following pharmacological actions? (Select all that apply.)
A) Exerts positive inotropic action
B) Decreases cardiac output
C) Decreases sympathetic tone
D) Increases vascular constriction
E) Increases myocardial contractility
A) Exerts positive inotropic action
C) Decreases sympathetic tone
E) Increases myocardial contractility
A patient who began drug therapy reports palpitations the following day. His ECG indicates frequent premature ventricular contractions. The provider prescribes a stat dose of lidocaine (Xylocaine) 50 mg via IV bolus. You should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse reactions?
A) Metabolic alkalosis
B) Hypertension
C) Tachycardia
D) Paresthesias
D) Paresthesias
A primary care provider prescribes captopril (Capoten) to treat a patient’s hypertension and also help alleviate his heart failure. The provider should make sure the patient understands that he should not take which of the following over-the-counter drugs while taking captopril?
A) Ibuprofen (Motrin)
B) Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
C) Calcium carbonate (Tums)
D) Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
A) Ibuprofen (Motrin)
The provider prescribes quinidine gluconate (Quinaglute Dura-tabs) as an oral antidysrhythmic agent. You should question the use of quinidine for a patient taking digoxin (Lanoxin) due to a possible drug interaction that can result in which of the following?
A) Liver toxicity
B) Quinidine toxicity
C) Digoxin toxicity
D) Cardiotoxicity
C) Digoxin toxicity
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) to treat heart failure. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indications of a potentially serious adverse reaction?
A) Shortness of breath
B) Hearing loss
C) Swelling in the legs
D) Blurred vision
B) Hearing loss
A health care professional should question the use of nifedipine (Procardia) for a patient who has a history of which of the following?
A) Bradycardia
B) Liver disease
C) Unstable angina pectoris
D) Second-degree AV block
C) Unstable angina pectoris
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking simvastatin (Zocor) to treat hypercholesterolemia. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indications of a serious adverse reaction that could warrant stopping drug therapy?
A) Bronchoconstriction
B) Muscle pain
C) Lip numbness
D) Somnolence
B) Muscle pain
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin captopril (Capoten) therapy to treat hypertension. When talking with the patient about taking the drug, the health care professional should tell her to report which of the following adverse effects because they can indicate a need to stop drug therapy? (Select all that apply.)
A) Rash
B) Distorted taste
C) Swelling of the tongue
D) Photosensitivity
E) Dry cough
A) Rash
B) Distorted taste
C) Swelling of the tongue
E) Dry cough
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin aliskiren (Tekturna) therapy to treat hypertension. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects of the drug? (Select all that apply.)
A) Hyperkalemia
B) Throat swelling
C) Constipation
D) Cough
E) Joint pain
A) Hyperkalemia
B) Throat swelling
D) Cough
A health care professional is reviewing the history of a patient who is about to begin furosemide (Lasix) therapy to treat hypertension. Which of the following drugs that the patient takes should alert the health care professional to take further action?
A) Lithium (Lithobid) for bipolar disorder
B) Phenytoin (Dilantin) for a seizure disorder
C) Erythromycin (Erythrocin) for bronchitis
D) Warfarin (Coumadin) to prevent blood clots
A) Lithium (Lithobid) for bipolar disorder
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has moderate to severe hypertension and is about to begin hydralazine therapy. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse reactions to the drug?
A) A flu-like syndrome
B) Extrapyramidal symptoms
C) A lupus-like syndrome
D) Hypertensive crisis
C) A lupus-like syndrome
When talking with a patient about taking amiodarone (Cordarone) to treat atrial fibrillation, which of the following should the health care professional tell the patient to avoid?
A) Grapefruit juice
B) Milk
C) Foods high in vitamin K
D) NSAIDs
A) Grapefruit juice
While talking with a patient about drug therapy options for hypertension, the provider notes that the patient also has some manifestations of depression that require treatment. Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is inappropriate for the patient?
A) Reserpine
B) Captopril (Capoten)
C) Hydralazine
D) Eplerenone (Inspra)
A) Reserpine
A provider is considering the various drug therapy options for treating a patient’s cardiac dysrhythmia. He should be aware that which of the following antidysrhythmic drugs is appropriate only for short-term use because of its severe adverse effects with long-term use?
A) Quinidine
B) Procainamide
C) Nitroglycerin
D) Verapamil (Calan)
B) Procainamide
A health care professional should question the use of dobutamine for a patient who is receiving which of the following types of drugs? (Select all that apply.)
A) ACE inhibitor
B) Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
C) General anesthetic
D) Tricyclic antidepressant
E) Beta blocker
B) Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
C) General anesthetic
D) Tricyclic antidepressant
E) Beta blocker
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking losartan (Cozaar) to treat hypertension. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indications of an adverse reaction to the drug?
A) Facial edema
B) Sleepiness
C) Peripheral edema
D) Constipation
A) Facial edema
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking verapamil (Calan) to treat atrial fibrillation. The health care professional should tell the patient to avoid grapefruit juice while taking verapamil because it can cause
A) tachycardia.
B) dehydration.
C) diarrhea.
D) hypotension.
D) hypotension.
When talking with a patient about taking eplerenone (Inspra) to treat hypertension, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions?
A) Avoid drinking grapefruit juice.
B) Use sunscreen and protective clothing.
C) Avoid the use of salt substitutes.
D) Stop taking the drug if dizziness occurs.
C) Avoid the use of salt substitutes.
A health care professional should question the use of milrinone (Primacor) for a patient who currently has which of the following?
A) Acute myocardial infarction
B) Peripheral vascular disease
C) Ulcerative colitis
D) Ventricular tachycardia
A) Acute myocardial infarction
A patient who takes carvedilol (Coreg) for hypertension is about to begin taking an oral antidiabetes drug to manage newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. The health care professional should make sure the primary care provider is aware that the patient is at increased risk for which of the following if she takes both drugs?
A) Hyperglycemia
B) Bradycardia
C) Hypotension
D) Hypoglycemia
D) Hypoglycemia
A health care professional is about to administer atenolol (Tenormin) to a patient who has hypertension. Which of the following assessments should the health care professional perform prior to giving the patient the drug?
A) Respiratory rate
B) Level of consciousness
C) Serum glucose
D) Apical pulse
D) Apical pulse
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking propranolol (Inderal) to treat a tachydysrhythmia. The health care professional should caution the patient about taking which of the following types of over-the-counter drugs?
A) Antihistamines
B) Potassium supplements
C) NSAIDs
D) Antacids
D) Antacids
A health care professional is assessing a patient following the administration of nifedipine (Procardia). Recognizing the adverse effects of nifedipine, the health care professional should be prepared to administer which of the following drugs?
A) Prazosin (Minipress)
B) Doxazosin (Cardura)
C) Propranolol (Inderal)
D) Enalapril (Vasotec)
C) Propranolol (Inderal)
When talking with a patient about taking clonidine (Catapres) to treat hypertension, the health care professional should explain that discontinuing clonidine therapy abruptly can result in which of the following adverse effects?
A) Constipation
B) Hypertension
C) Drowsiness
D) Dry mouth
B) Hypertension
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has a glomerular filtration rate of 10 mL/min and a reduced urine output. The health care professional should question the use of hydrochlorothiazide for the patient because of which of the following characteristics of the drug?
A) The drug can cause hypoglycemia in patients who have a low urine output.
B) The drug does not reduce blood pressure for patients who have a low urine output.
C) The drug can increase the risk of pulmonary edema for patients who have renal insufficiency.
D) The drug does not promote diuresis for patients who have renal insufficiency.
D) The drug does not promote diuresis for patients who have renal insufficiency.
A patient who is taking digoxin (Lanoxin) develops ECG changes and other manifestations that indicate severe digoxin toxicity. Which of the following drugs should the health care professional have available to treat this complication?
A) Acetylcysteine (Acetadote)
B) Flumazenil (Mazicon)
C) Fab antibody fragments (Digibind)
D) Deferoxamine (Desferal)
C) Fab antibody fragments (Digibind)
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking gemfibrozil (Lopid) to treat hypercholesterolemia. Which of the following instructions should the health care professional include when talking with the patient about the drug? (Select all that apply.)
A) Take the drug with food.
B) Report any new intolerance to fried foods.
C) Report muscle tenderness.
D) Expect periodic liver function testing.
E) Take the drug once a day.
B) Report any new intolerance to fried foods.
C) Report muscle tenderness.
D) Expect periodic liver function testing.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin using transdermal nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur) to treat angina pectoris. When talking with the patient about the drug, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions? (Select all that apply.)
A) Apply a new patch at the onset of anginal pain.
B) Apply the patch to dry skin and cover the area with plastic wrap.
C) Apply the patch to a hairless area and rotate sites.
D) Apply a new patch each morning.
E) Remove patches for 10 to 12 hr daily.
C) Apply the patch to a hairless area and rotate sites.
D) Apply a new patch each morning.
E) Remove patches for 10 to 12 hr daily.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is taking spironolactone (Aldactone) to treat hypertension. Which of the following laboratory values should alert the health care professional to take further action?
A) Serum sodium level of 140 mEq/L
B) Serum potassium level of 5.2 mEq/L
C) Serum chloride level of 100 mEq/L
D) Serum magnesium level of 1.9 mEq/L
B) Serum potassium level of 5.2 mEq/L

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