Arnold F. Willatt
created the first cold wave in 1938
Cold Wave
– perm that involves no machines and no chemicals that produced a heat reaction
– hair wrapped around rods while a waving lotion (thioglycolic acid or its derivatives) processed the hair without heat, processed then the lotion was rinsed, and then a neutralizer was applied then rinsed
alkaline waves
– thioglycolic acid (or its derivatives) and ammonia
– processed generally without heat & no tension
– starts to process as soon its applied
– pH 8.0 to 9.5 > use with caution to prevent damage to hair or skin (chemical burns)
acid waves
– glycerol monothioglycolate and NO ammonia
– only minimal swelling so firm tension is necessary
– pH 6.9 to 7.2
endothermic perms
the heat method of perming that involves placing a plastic cap on the client and then sitting them under a pre-heated dryer that caused the pH to gradually increase leaving the hair a healthy condition
exothermic perms
– self-timing and self-heating with an additive that created heat through a chemical reaction that was mixed with a perm solution
– range from acidic to alkaline > depending on manufactor
major phases of perming
physical & chemical
physical phase
– wrapping hair around the perm tool
– using end papers
chemical phase
– applying perm solution
– rinsing the solution from the hair
– applying neutralizer
– rinsing the neutralizer from the hair
croquigole wrapping method
– ends to root with the hair overlapping with each revolution
– hair should overlap the perm tool at least 2.5x creating an undulating wave and volume at the base
spiral: ends-to-base wrapping method
perm wrapping that begins at the ends and rotate under twice and then position the tool vertically before wrapping the hair around the tool in a corkscrew fashion creating a hanging curl with reduced volume at the base
straight rod
– perm tool that produces curls or waves that are uniformed throughout the hair strand
– hair on the ends travel the same distance as the hair in the center creating a consistent curl throughout strand
concave rod
– perm tool that produce a smaller, tighter curl in the center than the roots and ends
– the hair on both ends of the tool travel farther than the hair in the center creating a smaller tighter curl on the hair thats in the center of the tool and a wider, more spiraling pattern on the hair at the ends of the tool
end paper techniques
bookend, double-paper (double flat), & cushion
bookend end paper techniques
– one end paper folded in half
– used to control shorter sections of hair when a shorter rod length is used or to wrap sections of very short hair
double-paper (double flat) end paper technique
– incorporates two end papers, one on the top and one on the bottom
– most common end technique because it allows max control of tapered ends and avoids bunching the ends
cushion end paper technique
– incorporates several pieces of end papers
– begins with a double-paper technique and then additional end papers are positioned on top of the strands as you wrap the tool
– recommended for chemically treated and/or highly porous hair to allow even absorption of the solutions
– is used primarily in alkaline waving to keep hair smooth and provide for expansion when the hair swells
– a one diameter base is directed 45degrees above the center of the base and wrapped so the tool sits btwn the two partings
– creates move volume
half-off base
– a one diameter base is held at 90degrees from the center of the base and wrapped so the tool sits half-on the base and half-off the base, directly on the bottom parting
– the most common tool position
– creates max amount of curl from base to ends with minimum amount of stress on the hair
– base size of at least 1.5 diameter and the tool is positioned in the lower half of the base to achieve moderate base lift
– used in the perimeter areas where closeness is desired
– a base is held at 45degrees below the center of the base and is wrapped so that the tool sits completely off the base
– creates minim. volume with curl concentrated at the mid shaft and ends
– any base size can be used to create this tool position
rectangle / 9block pattern
– consist mostly of rectangle shapes throughout pattern
– basic direction is downward
– most basic pattern
bricklay pattern
– tools are in a staggered configuration
– alternating tool position row-to-row
– pattern can move in any direction
– chosen to avoid splits in the design
spiral bricklay pattern
– horizontal rows that are subdivided in a staggered bricklay pattern
– tools are positioned vertically with square bases
double-halo pattern
– features a center part with two rows of perm rods that follow the curvature of the head
oblong pattern
– positions rods within oblongs using diagonal partings
– creates a strong wave pattern
partial perms
– positions new texture only where it is desired
– excellent for short hair
perimeter perms
– aka “drop crown wrap”
– eliminate texture in the top and crown and focus on the perimeter and ends of the hair
piggy-back perms
– two rods are positioned along a single strand
– used for longer hair to ensure complete saturation of chemicals
– rods are wrapped in alternate directions to create a continued wave pattern
– can use the same diameter with each tool or can customize
alkaline perms
– strong perm
– faster processing time
– better for resistant hair
– no need for heat
acid perms
– soft, natural curl patterns
– more control due to slower processing time
– gentler on the hair
– better for fragile, porous, or chemically treated hair
perm solution
reduces disulfide bonds so hair can assume the shape of the rod
fixes, locks in, restores bonds to make the new shape of the hair permanent
permanent waving
who started the idea of “perms”
the Egyptians
– sticks, hot spring’s mud, then baked in the sun
Charles Nessler
– in 1905 he made the first permanent waving machine
– using strong alkalis solution
spiral method
wrapping hair from the roots to ends
croquignole method
– wrapping hair from ends to root
– this method led into pre-heated electric clamps
“pre-heat” / machineless method
– clamps that are preheated on a separate electrical unit and then placed over the hair
– using alkali chemicals used
Ralph I. Evan & Everett G. McDonough
– who introduced the method of chemical perming
– using bi-sulphides to create a curl

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