Origins of Psychology and Research Methods Worksheet Essay Sample
Part I: Origins of Psychology
Within psychology, there are several perspectives used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. The seven major perspectives in modern psychology are psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanist, cognitive, neuroscientific/biopsychological, evolutionary, and sociocultural. Describe the perspectives, using two to three sentences each. Select one major figure associated with one of the perspectives and describe his or her work in two to three sentences. Type your response in the space below.
Psychoanalytic is one drives, motives and childhood experiences the views are what drives a particular response to a situations. Behaviorist are environmental influences and negative and positives consequences for one actions. Humanist views are ones freewill and how human nature in used in a situation. Cognitive views are how one thinks, perceives, problem solves and process information. neuroscientific/biopsychological perspectives are where the genetic and biological process of the brain and other parts of the body effect a person’s behavior and traits. Evolutionary views are how one adapts, and the evolution of their behavior. Sociocultural views are how ones social interaction and culture effects one behavior. B.F Skinner and his study an on behavior is interesting especially when he did the Skinner box with the rat to see the behavior or positive and negative rewards. It shows how one can learn and chance a behavior if positively or negatively affected.
Part II: Research Methods
Describe research methods used in psychology by completing the following table. Then, select two of the research methods, and compare and contrast them. Your response must be at least 75 words.
Identify cause and effect
Allows researchers to have precise control over variables, helps identify cause and effect Ethical concerns, practical limitations, artificiality of lab conditions, uncontrolled variables may confound results, researcher and participant biases
An example, would be if one was to test a new drug and the tester knows what the teste is receiving and how they react to that drug. Descriptive
Observe, collect, and record data(description)
Minimizes artificiality, makes data collection easier, allows description of behavior and mental processes as they occur
Little or no control over variables, researcher or participant biases, cannot identify cause and effect
An example, would be if a researcher went to an airport and watched how people behave in that environment. Correlational
Identify relationships and assess how well one variable predicts another( prediction) Helps clarify relationships between variables that cannot be examined by other methods and allows prediction
Little or no control over variables, cannot identify cause and effect
An example, would be if one was to set up a camera and watch how kids interact with other kids and with adults. Biological
Identify contributing biological factors
Shares many or all of the advantages of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research
Shares many or all of the disadvantages of experimental, descriptive, and correlational research
An example, would be to hook someone up to an electrical recorder and record one behavior while sleeping this could be used when someone is having nightmares. Experimental and descriptive research methods are similar but differ in several ways. One thing that they have in common is that the both of them are recording data of a given experiment and ones behavior in that experiments. The two differ by experimental has to do with more hands on data and being able to control one or two variables in a situation. Descriptive research methods are more time consuming and one can control the variables, one has to sit back and watch the experiment and record the data.
Part III: The Brain
Studying the functions and elements of the brain is essential to understanding human behavior. Watch the CyberPsych animation, “The Brain,” to research the brain in more depth. To access the animation, do the following:
1 Open WileyPlus by clicking on the link on the student website.
2 Select Chapter Two.
3 Click Animation: The Brain.
After watching the animation, use it and your textbook to answer the
1. Why do psychologists study twins? Why do psychologists study children who have been adopted? What can be learned from these types of studies? Psychologist study’s twin because it a natural experiment to see if heredity effects a trait or behavior , there are two sets with the same make up so they should both experience the same. What can be learned from studying twin is a way to make sure that heredity has something to do with that particular trait or behavior. Psychologist study children who have been adopted to see if the adopted kids share traits from their genes (biological parents) or from there shred environment (adopted parents). What can be learned from this is what traits and behavior are from genetics and which ones come from their surroundings.
2. What are the functions of neurotransmitters and hormones? How do they influence the brain and behavior? Neurotransmitters are chemicals that neurons release, which affect other neurons. Neurotransmitters functions are to send messages to nearby neurons and hormones send it out to all neurons. Hormones chemicals manufactured by endocrine glands and circulated in the bloodstream to produce bodily changes or maintain normal bodily function. They influence the brain and behavior by allowing other neurons to receive a message such as pain or when someone is happy.
3. What is neuroplasticity?
Neuroplasticity is the brain’s ability to reorganize and change its structure and function throughout its lifespan.