NRS 223 Vocab

refers to a gradual change in our accepted norm for ecological conditions
Baseline Syndrome
is a group of individual organisms which are virtually identical in appearance but nonetheless each satisfy the biological definition of a species
cryptic species
graph recording the cumulative number of species of living things recorded in a particular environment as a function of the cumulative effort expended searching for them
Species Accumulation curves
events are defined in terms of four dimensions: three of space, and one of time, with one coordinate for each dimension; we continuously “move” along the time dimension.
Space and Time
the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration of the genetic code itself.
epigenetics
the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.
Demography
the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single genome.
Genome size
Contains two paired homologous sets of chromosomes
Polyploidy
bottom-up system concentrates attention on how resources (space and nutrients) influence higher trophic forms.
A top-down system focuses on interactions at top level consumers (predators) and their prey influence on lower trophic forms
Bottom up vs Top down control
Thermus aquaticus.
Thermus aquaticus is a species of bacterium that can tolerate high temperatures,
Used in genetics
Taq
the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it.
Remote sensing
absence of invasion/restriction
Control
Control, restricted and restored environment
Reference
fence (Phragmites)
greek word
growth pattern represents a dense fence
Phragma
based on the sequential use of a gas phase chemical process.
thin layer deposition
sink to a low
Subsidence
is the number of observations in a sample
Sample Size
is the process of planning a study to meet specified objectives.
Experimental design
Institute of Food and Agri Science
IFAS
– Biological Nutrient Removal, removing N
BNR
source of knowledge acquired by means of observation or experimentation
Empirical Data
obtain energy through the things they eat
Hetrotrophs
obtain energy through self
Autotrophs
Autotrophs are these
Primary producers
eat primary producers
Primary consumers
predators of herb
Secondary Consumer
predator of pred
Tertiary Consumer
However, unless the nutrients are available in adequate amounts relative to each other, phytoplankton growth is ‘nutrient limited’ by one or the other nutrient.
Limiting Nutrient
Required elements
Nutrients
Without O2`
Anoxic
Green algae (phytoplankton
Example of primary producer
Daphnia (zooplankton)
Example of primary consumer
Trout
Example of secondary consumer
excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen.
eutrophication
cyanobacteria
Capable of nitrogen fix
Daphnia
water fleas
Fairly predictable changes in species composition over time in a particular location.
Ecological succession refers to
Strong winds of hurricanes blowing down trees.
The historically annual floods of the Nile river.
Running a lawnmower over your lawn.
Which of the following are examples of ecological disturbances?
Both species that do well at low disturbance and those that do well at high disturbance are usually present
Intermediate levels of disturbance often lead to higher diversity because:
oak and hickory
In the ecological community represented in this lab, which species eventually dominate in low disturbance conditions?
large and infrequent
In the forest system you examined, which type of disturbance would cause species diversity to be most variable over time?
All 200 have equal pop
In a community with 200 species, under which conditions would Simpson’s diversity index have the highest value?
Disturbance resistance in an early-successional species will have little effect on diversity.
Imagine a species in this forest system is very resistant to disturbance, because it often doesn’t burn in a fire. Which is the most likely effect (or lack thereof) on species diversity?
Add 0.1 to the Sugar Maple to Grass transition.
Subtract 0.1 from the Sugar Maple to Sugar Maple transition.
If you wanted to specify that sugar maple trees have an additional 10% chance per year of dying and being replaced with grass, how would you change the transition matrix?
A model in which oak has a positive transition rate to the invasive and the invasive has a positive transition to grass.
An ecologist wants to know if diversity in a forest system is likely to decrease when an invasive species is introduced. This invasive species is a fast-growing annual plant that grows on oak trees and kills them. The invasive species can only survive on living oak trees. The ecologist has the original model from this lab and another version of the model which includes transitions that involve the invasive species.
Cyaonabacteria
Which type of organism in this lab can grow even if easily used forms of nitrogen like ammonia are not available in its environment or food?
Add phosphorus to one tank, nitrogen to another, and iron to a third, and see which treatment increases algal growth.
A company is growing algae in big tanks to make fish food. However, the algae is not growing very quickly, and they suspect either phosphorus, nitrogen, or iron is limiting. What could the company do to figure out which nutrient is limiting?
No, because, for algae in these lakes, other nutrients are in more limited supply.
Algae need carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, among other elements, in order to grow. Is carbon a limiting nutrient for algae in the lakes you studied in this lab?
The zooplankton population size increased, but trout died off.
When phosphorus inputs in the “DO or Die” exercise were increased 3x, phytoplankton populations also increased. Several years later, what happened to the population sizes of zooplankton and trout?
Consumer organisms increase the amount of DO in the water, because they eat algae before it has a chance to die and decay.
How do consumer organisms affect the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in a highly eutrophic lake?
fish
After exposure to a bioaccumulating toxin for long period of time, which type of organism would you expect to have the highest toxin concentration?
When algae dies, decompsers use up O2
How can an increase in algal population size kill fish?
Installing aerators that bubble air (including oxygen) into the water
Based on your results in this lab, which of the following might help maintain the whole ecological community in the lake you studied in “DO or Die” as its algae populations bloom (i.e., as eutrophication occurs)?

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