Non-Fiction and Persuasive Techniques Terms

Expository Essay
explores a topic with the goal of informing or enlightening the reader
Extemporaneous Speech
a speech in which the speaker refers to notes occasionally
How-To Writing
a type of informational writing that explains a procedure or strategy
Focuses on one incident or period in a person’s life
this is meant to be heard aloud which is different from an essay
Personal Essay
explores topics related to the life or interests of the writer
Persuasive Essay
aims to convince the reader to accept a certain point of view
to inform
to express thoughts or ideas, or to tell a story
to portray (create an image) of a person, place, or event
to convince people to accept a position and respond in some way
Logical Appeal
Persuading by giving logical evidence or reasoning
Emotional Appeal
Persuading by appealing to people’s emotions (fear, anger, pity, humor,
etc.); often achieved through the use of emotionally charged vocabulary
a short interesting account of a real or fictional story about life. In
persuasion, an anecdote can capture audience interest and put a real face on an issue.
Audience Analysis
the process of analyzing the beliefs, backgrounds, and common
assumptions, hot buttons, and other factors which will determine how your audience will react to your speech / essay.
taking a point from the opposing side and showing how it can actually be
connected to your own argument. Think of building a bridge between two sides. This technique can show your audience that your point of view is not really far from theirs.
Common Ground
establishing a common area of agreement with your audience or opponent
before beginning to persuade
Agreeing that the other side has a point when they make an argument
against you. This technique can show that you see all sides of an issue. You can then explain why this point, though valid, is not as important as your point or the big picture.
Supporting Evidence
can either be anecdotal or factual, but you must cite
your sources to make your evidence seem credible to the audience.
Style Techniques
Rhetorical Question
Asking an obvious question of your audience without intending for them to answer; a technique that is intended to provoke thought about the obvious
Restating the same thought in a different way
Repeating exactly words / phrases to add emphasis to their importance
Using the same sentence pattern or structure several times to add rhythm
to your speaking / writing
an informational piece of writing about a particular topic, issue, or event
the story of a person’s life written by that person
Memorized Speech
A speech that has been written out and memorized word for word
Impromptu Speech
a speech given without advance preparation (given by a person receiving a surprise award)
the story of a person’s life written by someone else
a magazine or newspaper article that represents the opinions of the editors or publishers

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