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To be deviant, a person must:
not conform to one of society’s norms
Which of the following is incorrect?
Deviants always purposely and knowingly break the law.
The self-fulfilling prophesy is associated with:
Labelling theory
To study why women kill their abusive husbands, Robin plans to look at the positive and negative sanctions they weighed when deciding to do so. Which theory is Robin most likely using?
Rational choice
Elizabeth argued that one reason women are abused by their husbands is because their unpaid labor is undervalued in society. Which perspective is Elizabeth most likely using?
feminist
Zhen Wu lives in a rapidly changing society. Technology is changing more quickly than most people can keep up, and the government was recently overthrown. Zhen Wu as well as his family, friends, and neighbors experience a host of new opportunities, excitement, and anxiety. Which of the following is most likely to be the result of these changes?
anomie
Smiles, frowns, and hugs are all examples of:
informal external controls
The U.S. prison system was originally designed to:
all of the above
Which of the following is an effective alternative to prison?
Building social capital
“Members of society create deviance by defining certain behaviors as deviant.” This statement most closely reflects:
labeling theory
According to the data presented in the text, the United States has more crime than:
all of the above
Which of the following is an example of a consensus crime?
murder
“Deviance serves vital social functions.” This statement most closely reflects:
Structural-functional theory
Which of the following facts are untrue regarding hate crimes?
Most are due to homophobia
Companies who fail to install adequate safety equipment because they feel pressured not to cut into their profits by spending money on safety features commit a crime against their employees. This behavior can best be explained by what theory?
strain
_______ is defined as the violation of social norms.
deviance
How does primary deviance differ from secondary deviance?
Individuals are not labeled as “deviant” unless they commit secondary deviance.
Crimes against the company are more likely to occur when:
The company is large
Susan would love to be a lawyer but cannot afford to go to law school. Her boyfriend suggested that she steal from her grandmother’s estate in order to finance her education, but she refuses. Instead, she took a two-year course and became a librarian. Merton would classify Susan’s actions as:
Ritualism
According to social control theory, which of the following actions might influence a person to conform?
all of the above
Recidivism is:
Returning to prison after already serving a prior term
Kina is a 17-year-old young woman. Her parents describe her as sweet, kind, and responsible. They say she is this way because they encouraged her to attend church, study hard, and believe that “nice girls finish first.” To which theory of deviance do Kina’s parents most likely subscribe?
Social control theory
Juan Carlos originally hoped to purchase a home. However, because he could not earn enough money to ever afford one, he decided that a home was no longer important. Instead, he found happiness through quitting his job, moving into a shack in the woods, and enjoying the solitude. Merton would classify Juan Carlos’s adaptation to strain as:
Retreatism
For the first time ever, Carson smoked marijuana just to experience it. People observing Carson doing this see this as a one-time behavior. According to labeling theory, Carson committed:
primary deviance
Racketeering is:
The extortion of funds in exchange for “protection”
By using ___________, a more accurate picture of crime may be seen.
triangulation of multiple data sources
A belief that becomes a reality is:
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Which theoretical perspective argues that deviance will always exist unless the current structure of society is changed dramatically?
Conflict
Organized crime is more prevalent among:
Marginalized ethnic groups
Anomie and strain are associated with the:
Structural-functionalist perspective
“People learn to conform or deviate from the individuals they spend time with.” With which theory does this statement best fit?
Differential association
The forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by society are considered ________.
crimes
White-collar crime is:
all of the above
In the study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, Chambliss found that:
all of the above
Casey could not believe that her friends were continuing on to college after high school. She found it much more important to try to overthrow the current government, and she planned to chain herself to the capital building and stage a hunger strike until her demands were met. Merton would argue that Casey was coping with strain through:
rebellion
The forms of deviance in which formal penalties are imposed by society are considered _______
crimes
A justification to invade Iraq was “to bring democracy to the Iraqi people.” This is an example of a(n) ________ justification for war.
ideological
Which of the following scenarios best depicts how power operates at the micro-level?
Husbands and wives often argue about the division of labor within the household.
Which of the following is not one of the characteristics shared by “ideal-type” democracies?
They are usually headed by military juntas
Which of the following statements is true about charismatic leaders?
They are effective during transitional periods but are often replaced by rational-legal leaders once affairs of state become stable.
According to your text, the oldest warring parties are:
The Israelis and Palestinians
Which of the following individuals is credited with the most often used definition of power?
Max weber
“Control is concentrated in the hands of the privileged, and the masses have little influence.” This statement most closely reflects:
Power elite theory
Jimmy’s gang is warring with Francisco’s gang. To keep Francisco from attacking, Jimmy has bought an assault rifle. This is an example of:
deterrence
Which of the following scenarios best depicts how power operates at the meso-level?
States make decisions about which corporations receive tax breaks.
In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, voter turnout was:
62%
Which of the following economic systems stress individual planning and private ownership of property?
MArket systems
Countries such as Sweden and Great Britain that have incorporated some democratic socialist ideas into their governmental policies are sometimes called:
welfare states
Which of the following types of authority is held by leaders that have the expertise to carry out the duties of their positions?
Rational-legal authority
Which of the following statements about elite theory is false?
Elite theorists believe that no one group dictates all policy.
Which of the following social scientists distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate power?
MAX WEBER
The two main forms of democratic constitutional government are:
Parliamentary and presidential
____________________ theorists think underlying social problems cause disruptions to the system, including war, terrorism, and revolution.
Functional
According to the text, which country accounts for 48 percent of world military spending?
The US
Which of the following economic systems involve state-based planning and control of property?
Centralized
According to your text, which of the following types of authority is passed on through the generations?
Traditional authority
According to Weber, governments are given legitimate power when:
Citizens acknowledge that the government has the right to exercise power over them
Which of the following types of authority is most typical of modern nation-states?
Rational-legal authority
According to the text, which of the following is not a typical function of meso-level political institutions?
To socialize new citizens
Which of the following types of authority is held by an individual with extraordinary personal characteristics?
Rational-legal authority
According to the text, in which of the following countries is it a violation of the law to fail to vote?
Australia
Which of the following scenarios best depicts how power operates at the micro-level?
Husbands and wives often argue about the division of labor within the household.
According to the text, the goal of capitalism is:
Profit
__________________ theorists focus on symbols and constructions of reality that allow some persons to assume power.
Interaction
__________________ theorists believe political systems serve important purposes in society.
Functional
_______________ refers to the social institution that determines and exercises power relations in society.
politics
According to ___________, the U.S. flag has become a sacred icon.
Exchange theorists
__________________ theorists believe that state protects the privileged position of a few, allowing them to consolidate power.
conflict
Which of the following types of authority is most typical of modern nation-states?
rational-legal authority
Which of the choices below is not true about terrorists?
They generally act alone.
Which of the following scenarios best depicts how power operates at the micro-level?
Husbands and wives often argue about the division of labor within the household.
_______________ refers to the social institution that determines and exercises power relations in society
Politics
Which of the following scenarios best depicts how power operates at the meso-level?
States make decisions about which corporations receive tax breaks.
All of the following individuals are considered charismatic leaders except:
Captain Jack Sparrow (the pirate)
According to power elite theorists:
It is inevitable that a small group will rule societies
“Power is distributed among various groups so that no one group rules.” This statement is most likely to be made by a(n):
Pluralist theorist
Which of the following is not necessary for a social movement?
Shared social positions among members
According to the text, lynching, killings, and hate crimes are all examples of:
Mobs
Your boss pressuring you to donate to the company charity when you have never supported the charity before is a:
Stress
The spread of a new finding from one place to another is known as:
diffusion
Bai-lin is studying a group of anarchists who are working to try to eliminate all government and government control as a whole from the United States, and encourage everyone to rule himself or herself instead. The group Bai-lin is studying is likely a part of a(n):
Revolutionary movement
The theory of social change that assumes that change is inevitable because of inequality in society is:
conflict
Which of the following statements about the history of the car is false?
The car changed dating behavior, as it allowed women to travel farther to find husbands.
Matthew Shepard was killed by a group of young men simply because he was gay. The killing of Matthew Shepard is a form of:
Crowd behavior
According to Ogburn, the findings of stem cell research are:
discoveries
According to the text, which of the following models for planning organizational change combine both internal processes and the external environment?
open systems models
According to world systems theory, what type of nation provides raw materials and cheap labor for production?
Periphery nations
The impact that the large “baby boom” generation is having on the U.S. Social Security system is a:
Strain
“A group seeking change can attempt to set up a situation in which desired behavior is rewarded.” This statement most closely reflects:
Rational choice theory
According to evolutionary theory, societies typically move through stages in which order?
Hunting and gathering, horticultural, agrarian, industrial
Which of the following is not a necessary element for collective behavior to occur, according to value-added theory?
strong social controls
Variations or alterations in the behavior patterns, culture, and structure of society are known as:
social change
Which of the following is not true about social movements?
The are usually begun by individuals within the power structure
Ulla wants to study the way that groups of individuals react to a terrorist attack in their area. She feels that their confusion following the attack will lead to the development of new definitions of acceptable behavior. Which theory is Ulla most likely using?
Emergent norm theory
Which of the following statements about rumors is false?
Rumors are a form of crowd behavior.
Which of the following is a proactive social movement?
A group promoting gay marriage
Which of the following assumptions do sociologists make about social change?
Some change can be controlled.
Which of the following is an example of strain experienced by an organization?
Religious beliefs of management
Carlin wants to study the civil rights movement in the United States. His hypothesis is that the movement has actually been a series of slow, small changes that have helped society run more smoothly. Carlin is most likely using a ________ perspective.
functionalist
A system of planned organizational change in which workers in the company are involved in the decision-making process to change the internal dynamics of a company to make it more efficient is a:
Human relations approach
Thomas, a revolutionary sociologist, is organizing a social movement in Kentucky. Unfortunately, his social movement lacks a clear leadership structure, division of labor, or sense of group action. Thomas’s social movement is best classified as:
Mass behavior
An analysis of the payoffs in favor of change and the forces rewarding the status quo is known as a:
Force-field analysis
Which of the following statements about terrorism is false?
Modern terrorist organizations are national governments (e.g., Afghanistan, Iran, North Korea).
Which of the following is an example of a crowd behavior?
Panics
Worldwide networks of labor resources and production processes that create a product are called:
commodity chains
Which of the following is an example of a mass behavior?
fads
The stage of a social movement in which the context for the movement is set is the ___________ stage.
preliminary

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