1. Isolate bacterial plasmid

2. Select gene of interest & insert into plasmid.

3. Plasmid taken up by bacterium.

4. Bacteria replicate


• Protein product harvested from bacteria.
• Create and harvest copies of a gene.

Rank the typical genetic modification procedure from first step to last step.
A culture of genetically identical cells.

ex. a clone might refer to a culture of bacterial cells that contain a particular recombinant DNA plasmid, as in, “This is our clone of human insulin.”

Which of the following best describes a CLONE in the context of GENETIC MODIFICATION procedures?
Cells usually won’t copy an isolated gene sequence.

A DNA sequence from a human, by itself, won’t do much if taken up by a bacterium. DNA molecules with exposed ends (i.e., noncircular) are degraded by bacterial enzymes.

Which of the following best describes why a vector is used in genetic modification procedures?
Producing a clone generates many copies of the gene of interest.

Usually the goal is to produce many copies of the gene—either to harvest those DNA copies, or to produce (and harvest) large amounts of the gene’s protein product. I

Recombinant DNA techniques typically involve generating a clone. Why?
Bacteria now produce hGH.

These bacteria now produce hGH protein that is harvested and purified by pharmaceutical companies.

Which of the following best describes how recombinant DNA technology currently helps patients who do NOT produce adequate amounts of growth hormone (hGH)—a condition that otherwise leads to stunted growth?
Genetically engineered crops have an advantageous gene from another organism inserted into their genome.
hich of the following utilizes recombinant DNA technology to produce advantageous traits in the crops that are produced?
Insects that normally destroy non-toxin-producing crops will be killed when they eat plants that do produce the toxin.
Why is it advantageous for the plants to produce the Bt toxin?
The Bt toxin gene is isolated and inserted into a Ti plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The engineered Ti plasmid is taken up by a bacterium that infects the cotton plant.
Which of the following best explains how scientists are able to introduce the bacterial gene for Bt toxin into the cotton plant genome?
1. The Ti plasmid is isolated and prepared for the insertion of foreign DNA

2. The gene for Bt toxin is isolated from the bacterium and inserted into the plasmid.

3.The plasmid is taken up by a bacterium.

4. The bacterium is used to introduce the Bt toxin gene into the chromosome of plant cells.

5. A single cell is chosen to produce a plant that now produces Bt toxin.

Process for the uptake of Bt toxin
• The Bt gene could ultimately make the plants pathogenic to humans.

• The Bt toxin could negatively affect the taste of the food that is produced from these crops.

• The Bt toxin could result in the death of non-pest species of insects.

Which of the following are concerns raised by the public about genetically engineered crops?