Near v. Minnesota (1931)- supreme court decision that recognized Freedom of the Press – ruled that a Minnesota law that targeted publishers of “malicious” or “scandalous” newspapers violated the first amendment. Libel- a published statement that unjustifiably exposes someone to ridicule or contempt; for a statement to be libel it must satisfy 3 elements: defamation, identification, and publication. prior restraint- a judicial order that stops a media organization from publishing or broadcasting a story or image. even though the 1st amendment protects our rights to free speech, there are still ways in which we are restricted 8 Oliver Sipple – a decorated marine and vietnam vet known for saving the president of the United States, Gerald Ford, on September 22, 1975. He was presented as hero to the people for saving the president, but was later discovered that he was gay. This became a huge news story and people’s view of him changed drastically despite his heroic actions. He was a prominent figure in Harvey Milk’s gay pride parades and gay rights demonstrations.

Sipple saved President Gerlad Ford by tackling woman who had a magnum pointed at the president from close range. Sipple’s contact was enough to throw her off and miss her shot. Obscenity- sexually explicit material that is legally prohibited from being published 2010 Citizens United case (made lawful what is known as the super PAC) advertising clutter- the large # commercials, advertising and other non-programming messages and interruptions that compete for consumer attention on the radio, television, and Internet 9