Maximizing the products

Introduction A supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store, is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market. The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space, usually on a single level. It is usually situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers.

The basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and frequently the convenience of shopping hours that extend far into the evening or even 24 hours a day. Supermarkets usually allocate large budgets to advertising, typically through newspapers. They also present elaborate in-shop displays of products. The shops are usually part of corporate chains that own or control (sometimes by franchise) other supermarkets located nearby—even transnational—thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale.

All the products displayed in the Shopping Space are consumer products and will be sold to the customers & used by them. So it’s a requirement to include the flexibility of assemblage, along with maximum exposure for customer clarity and ease in circulation while designing the Display Units. Durability, cost, maintenance and ergonomics considerations and effective and efficient circulation for consumers, sales and maintenance personnel are also should be considered while designing. The purpose of supermarket can be briefly described as;

Many of our Dhaka city customers are now seek for an easy-care lifestyle based on simple, functional and aesthetics and quality design products. The idea of supermarkets flourished in the country last decade, fueled by growing urbanization, increasing number of women working outside their home, and rising per capita income. Under the above circumstance following propositions can be taken care of; Supermarket design is an emerging discipline in Dhaka city. One can understand its need if just study the relationship between the environment (space, lighting, furniture, etc.

) and human (Consumer) behavior. With the philosophy to satisfy the need of the target customer and to provide a joyous shopping experience in a soothing atmosphere supermarket concept in Dhaka city started its journey. But there are lacking in some points like “supermarket interior design”. After observing the local examples and the foreign standard examples, it can be easily diagnosed that local ones need to be taken care of some areas such as; interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement, highlight each product equally e. t. c.

The key issues that can be keep in mind while discussions are followings; Allocation of space to different functional areas and utilization of every inch of it is most important. To design a standalone destination supermarket that is a fusion of shapes and colors. The challenge is to avoid monotony through proper planning, designing and finding out the best display solution and effective circulation. According the above mentioned purpose, propositions and key issues about supermarket in Dhaka city the scope of work regarding that issue can be defined as; a contemporary, functionally and aesthetically solved Interior of a supermarket.

Considering the display units, floor layout, ceiling & wall treatment and display arrangement. To satisfy the need of the target customer and to provide just the right atmosphere for a joyous shopping experience in a soothing melody of cozy and vibrant place. 2. Background of the Study Supermarket is a new concept in Dhaka city. The Chain Supermarkets are now a growing phenomenon in city area. As the customers are increasingly becoming more aware of the conveniences and their own lifestyles, they are in many cases preferring to go to a Supermarket for their everyday shopping rather than to small departmental stores around.

So, the customer satisfaction is important for growth of this sector. Supermarkets are set to boom in Dhaka city as the current market players are planning to open several hundred more outlets in the next few years to cope with the rising demand from the consumers. With a strong 15-20 per cent annual sales growth, about 30 companies with more than 200 outlets have already made foray into the industry. The annual turnover of the supermarkets now stands at around Tk 15. 0 billion (1500 core) [1] 2. 1.

Reasons for developing the need of supermarkets in Bangladesh The idea of supermarkets flourished in the country last decade, fueled by growing urbanization, increasing number of women working outside their home, and rising per capita income etc. [2] Many of our Bangladeshi customers are now seek for an easy-care lifestyle based on simple, functional and aesthetics and quality design products. Some of the major reasons are described bellow; 2. 2. Rapid Urbanization Population growth rates in Bangladesh are the highest among the South- and South-East Asian countries.

Migration figures give a picture on the affinity of the migrants towards the bigger cities. [3] 2. 2. 1. Reasons Change in the status of towns in different levels accompanied with offices, industries, and academic institutions attracting people of various professions. Attraction of socio-cultural, educational and health and others facilities in the city. The concentration of different institution also led to high growth of the educated middle class. Figure 2. 2: Population growth rates in Bangladesh 2. 3.

Introduction of Nuclear family concept Urbanization introduced major changes in the system of education and occupation. Western ideas increasingly infiltrated into the middle-class thinking through their education, in service training and the media- books, journals and press. This influenced gradual change in the concept of family, life-style and living. Metropolitan society and the job structure together created preference for nuclear family to replace the traditional joint family. [4] 2. 4. Economic Solvency among the Middle Class

In the middle class sector there has been a definite shift in the financial capacity as well as attitude towards life in the people of the capital and maybe a couple of other major cities during the last couple of years. Bangladesh’s PPP (purchasing power parity) GNI per capita has steadily increased. People are increasingly spending more for food, clothes and life style management. This time, the spending spree was observed even in remote northern or southern districts. Multi-storied shopping malls are coming up at upazila (sub district) level. [5]

Figure 2. 4: USD 6. 0 billion equivalent reportedly change hands during the month of Ramadan alone. 2. 5. Increasing Woman Employment and Busy life style of Mothers Now a day’s our life is getting more and more busy so managing a busy lifestyle specially for a working mother doing all the household things can be merely challenging sometimes. [6] Ten years ago, a majority of the women workers in Bangladesh worked in the informal sector. However, the demographic structure of the employment participation in Bangladesh is witnessing a remarkable change.

An increasing number of women are working in the formal sector as entrepreneurs and paid workers, a situation that was not seen in the past. Figure 2. 5: Labor force status, Bangladesh 1983-2000 2. 6. Inconvenience in the conventional Shopping Practice Shopping in untidy ambiance such as muddy floor, insufficient space to move, unhygienic arrangement of product, bargaining process, inconsistence price, a shopper in urban area lose his or her interest to shop in market and get panicked subsequently.

Shopping in the traditional way is no longer a pleasant experience rather nightmare for shopper. As a result, Shopping mall is getting popularity among urban people. [7] 2. 6. 1. Unprofessional attitudes of the conventional sellers Customers in urban area are being deceived everyday by shopkeepers with selling inferior goods, charging excessive price and incorrect measurement. In other words, consumers are one sort of hostage to these shoppers, who form one kind of syndicate and dictate the market. [8] 2. 6. 2. Unjustified pricing

The agony of the consumer compound with exorbitant price, inferior quality of the products, and long bargaining custom in Bangladesh, inaccurate measurement, traffic jam, and so forth triggered by lose of interest for shopping. Notably, consumers of Bangladesh have always been the victim of deception by the shoppers, who invariably manipulate the price. 2. 7. Time consumption Time consumption is another major concept that changes consumer behavior (e. g. People are going into shopping malls rather than local markets).

To avoid unnecessary trips to the stores to stores, finding a single place to get all the needs to run a family and Shop for things in bulk. This in return saves both time and money. All these requirements for our busy life end up with a good solution that is a well organized modern shopping mall. 2. 8. Store Loyalty and Customer care The Shopping malls, customers go to have a lot more to do with the customers’ experience than with the prices. Customers value more about being greeted by the workers then the price tag of groceries. Customer service plays a huge role for why people go back to the same store.

Also, people like how convenience of finding all their grocery items in the same store. [9] 2. 9. Accessibility of credit or debit card People care about their safety and always try to avoid the hustle of carrying cash. That is why people changes the local shops and turns towards the shopping malls. 2. 10. Parking Facility Shopping malls are convenient places to shop. They provide shoppers with abundant and secure parking areas. Shoppers need not drive around for fifteen minutes looking for a parking place, nor need they be afraid to walk to their cars after they have completed their shopping.

[10] 2. 11. Over all Factors affecting Customers to shop at supermarket The very first reason of sample customers to purchase from shopping mall is quality products, products variety and special products that are 66%, 54% and 52% respectively. The other reasons, by order based on percentages of the sample customers’ preference, are location (48%), hygienic environment (46%), hassle free shopping and freshness (36%), competitive price (28%), service and layout of the store (24%). Some customers like to purchase baby food from the shopping malls as well.

People those who came to purchase regularly from shopping mall don’t use the home delivery option as where available. All the malls possess their specialty on gathering certain products by which some of the customer prefers purchasing from the particular store. [11] Figure 2. 11. Over all Factors affecting Customers to shop at supermarket CHAPTER TWO APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 2. 1. Aims To provide a contemporary, functionally and aesthetically solved interior of a supermarket. Allocation of space to different functional areas and utilization of every inch of it. 2. 2. Objectives

?Space is one of the scarcest resources in Dhaka city. So allocation of space to different functional areas and utilization of every inch of it is most important factor. ?Giving a modern and modified look to the shopping space. Contemporary, functionally and aesthetically solved interior of a supermarket. ?Interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement to highlight each product equally will be done by following the proper standard. ?A clear and free flowing circulation segmented zoning into fresh section, followed by the dry area which encompasses non-food, beauty and preserved items.

For allowance for browsing and wandering freely to increased impulse purchases. To enhance visual appeal and flexibility. ?With a stand out storage system to fast replacement of the sold products. ?Some unique features to draw more customer attention will also be added while designing. By using echo friendly furniture material and blend of colors ; shapes. ?Durability, cost, maintenance and ergonomics considerations for consumers, sales and maintenance personnel will also be considered. 2. 3. Organization of the Study

The study deals with various perspectives to fulfill the designated objectives and to reach the final goal. Thus successful completion of the job is done by going through the following arrangement of the study report. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the research topic and some general in formations about Supermarket. It contains background of the study and a general reason behind selecting the task along with its justification. Chapter two deals the declaration of the aims and objectives, it also contains the scope of the study along with constrains and limitations prevailed in completion of the job.

Chapter three presents a review of literature on General history of Supermarket, general Characteristics, Classifications, Supermarket Planning System, Ergonomics Study, international practice for standard supermarket design. Chapter four deals with the methodology and procedural approach followed to carry out this study and steps followed for successful completion of the job through attaining the objectives working behind the whole activity. Chapter four contains the profile of study area. It incorporates maps of study areas, Google Earth images, and present project condition.

The data collected from field is questionnaire survey and the indicators to realize the actual status of supermarket shopping practice in Dhaka city now days. Chapter six presents major findings according to the primary and secondary survey results. And chapter seven deals with the possible outcome and recommendations based on the results from the previous chapters. CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP AND PROCEDURE 5. 1 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH Supermarkets introduced a whole new experience in the shopping of daily needs. They offered quality products at a stable price in safe and clean environment in order to survive and achieve profitability.

Although there are many factors which relate to customer satisfaction, but this study field tended to emphasize on layout of the supermarket ,Interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement to highlight each product equally by following the proper standard. The purpose of the study is to identify the role of each of the factors to respond to customer requirements to satisfy customers and what and how they behave in the market place toward these factors. The totality of their movement toward the factors and attitude, the researcher liked to demonstrate here.

To fulfill the objectives of the research, the entire study has been carried out through an orderly step by step process. This chapter illustrates these sequential steps. The total procedure of methodology is represented by the following flow chart: 5. 2 Data collection Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources to fulfill the research objectives. In order to obtain the objectives of this research, several methods of data collection and analysis were adopted. Following is a synopsis of methods of data collection and analysis. 5. 2. 1 Primary Data Collection

The primary data were collected particularly through survey. The selected sample supermarkets were six in numbers namely, Agora, Meena Bazar, Swapno, Big bazar, Gift village and Family needs. The activities required to gather information from primary data collection are as following; (a)Questionnaire Survey The questionnaires were developed from many previous researches. The data was collected from 50 customers of 6 supermarkets in Dhaka city. At the very outset to single out the aspects of the subject matter, two types of data sources were utilized. The no.

of respondents is at least 10 customers from each of the supermarkets and selected randomly that is convenience sampling. Hence, 50 is the sample size in total. There were many survey respondents that left certain questions blank and consequently the frequency distributions do not add to the total number of customers surveyed the calculated percentages reflect only portions of the answers to the question. The respondents were met during shopping (Mall intercept personal interview technique) as well as after or before shopping which one found suitable.

After the data collection, the raw data were categorized through coding, tabulation and drawing statistical inferences based on the computation of various percentages and averages etc. (b) Case study Sometimes questionnaire survey cannot explore some matters in details which can be more descriptive through case study. The selected sample supermarkets were six in numbers namely, Agora, Meena Bazar, Swapno, Big bazar, Gift village and Family needs. These activities required to gather information includes; i. Photography ii. Measuring dimension of the space, circulation, furniture etc iii.

Interviewing the employee, owner for helpful information. iv. Discussion with relevant experienced personnel about the topic. 5. 2. 2 Secondary Data In this way, the abstracting and indexing journals published or unpublished were selected as first place to go. Academic journals, annual report, BSOA (Bangladesh Supermarket Owners Association) reports, conference proceedings, government reports, books and finally the current and available information from the newspapers were tapped depending upon the nature of the problem. 5.

3 Selection of the Study Area According to Bangladesh Supermarket Owners Association (BSOA) the supermarkets of Dhaka City can be broadly divided into two groups; Retail chain Supermarket (With several branches in different areas of Dhaka city) and Neighborhood Supermarket (May be another one or two branches in the same locality). Among the retail chain super markets Dhaka-based Agora now run six outlets, Meena Bazar nine including seven in Dhaka, PQS five, Nandan five and Swapno fourteen. Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) also runs 11 stores in the capital.

Among the Neighborhood Supermarkets; Gift village has no other branches, Family needs has only 2 branches in within Uttara, Big bazar has two branches in Wari, Shop n Save has no other branches, Prince Bazar two. The researcher followed 50% from each the above mentioned category of supermarket for physical survey. They are Meena Bazar, Agora and Swapno from Retail chain Supermarket group and Family needs, Gift village and Big Bazar from Neighborhood Supermarket group. Both the categories were selected from the two Dhaka city corporation zones. The selection process of the different zone for physical survey is following; 5.

3. 1. Dhaka City Corporations On 29 November 2011 the Dhaka City Corporation was dissolved by the Local Government (City Corporation) Amendment Bill 2011 passed by the after being placed in the Parliament on November 23. The city corporation was split into two corporations, North and South, with the southern wing holding more territory than the north. Each corporation has a self-governing entity, thus giving the city of Dhaka two mayors. The government holds that bifurcation would ensure better quality of civic services to the denizens of the city. 5. 3. 2. Dhaka South City Corporation

Geographical Location ; Area of DSCC DSCC is situated in the southern part of Dhaka City which consists of 56 wards covering the thanas of Dhaka Kotwali, Motijheel, Sutrapur, Ramna, Bangsal, Wari, Gendaria, Chwokbazar, Lalbagh, Hazaribagh, Dhanmondi, Shahbagh, New Market, Khilgaon, Kamrangirchar ; some others. Map 4. 3. 2: Dhaka South City Corporations 5. 3. 3. Dhaka North City Corporation Geographical Location ; Area of DNCC DNCC is situated in the northern part of Dhaka City which consists of 36 (Thirty Six) wards. The total area of DNCC is about 82. 638 sq. km. Map 4. 3. 3: Dhaka North City Corporations

Map 4. 3. 3: Dhaka North City ; South city zoning 5. 4. The total procedure of the Selection of Study Area is represented by the following flow chart: 3. 4 Reconnaissance Survey 5. 5 Reconnaissance Survey Reconnaissance survey is the primary stage to get a visual appearance of the Supermarkets in Dhaka City and perceive it in reality. This experience is required to form a preliminary idea about an area subjected to detail surveying. In this survey, the selected Supermarkets and their surroundings were examined in order to know how the work can be executed in the best possible ways.

To fulfill the purpose, the selected Supermarkets were rounded by the surveyors on appropriate days. CHAPTER SIX Findings 6. Findings Supermarkets introduced a whole new experience in the shopping of daily needs. They offered quality products at a stable price in safe and clean environment in order to survive and achieve profitability. Although there are many factors which relate to customer satisfaction, but this study field tended to emphasize on layout of the supermarket ,Interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement to highlight each product equally by following the proper standard.

The purpose of the study is to identify the role of each of the factors to respond to customer requirements to satisfy customers and what and how they behave in the market place toward these factors. According to literature survey on 6 foreign standard supermarket and physical survey on 6 supermarkets of Dhaka city ( 3 from the South zone and 3 from the North zone) it’s found that the supermarkets of Dhaka city lacks in furniture layout planning, designing the display units, standard circulation, and zoning. The selected sample supermarkets were six in numbers namely, Agora, Meena Bazar, Swapno, Big bazar, Gift village and Family needs.

To identify the host project the following categories are analyzed, 6. 1. 1. Furniture layout planning Family needs in furniture layout planning No specific standard is followed while designing the furniture layout of Family needs. Differentiating the dry and wet zone or by product variety was not observed. Gift Village In furniture layout planning certain levels of standard has been maintained. Good approach in furniture layout planning. But differentiating the dry and wet zone or by product variety was not observed. Swapno In furniture layout planning in some spaces tried to follow the standard furniture layout .

But failed to maintain in high traffic areas. Differentiating the dry and wet zone or by product variety was observed. In Agora certain levels of standard have been maintained. Good approach in furniture layout planning. Differentiating the dry and wet zone or by product variety was observed. Big Bazar No specific standard is followed while designing the furniture layout of Big Bazar. Differentiating the dry and wet zone or by product variety was not observed. 6. 1. 2. In Circulation In standard practice minimum 30% space should be provided for circulation.

And minimum six feet gap should be provided between two display units and aisle. In family needs the standard was not followed in providing space between the aisles. Disturbance in circulation was observed. In Gift village in most of the spaces minimum level of circulation space has been provided. In Swapno In most of the spaces minimum level of circulation space has been provided. In Meena bazaar in most of the spaces minimum level of circulation space has been provided. In Agora In most of the spaces minimum level of circulation space has been provided.

In Big Bazar In most of the spaces minimum level of circulation space has been provided. 6. 1. 3. Innovative display units In Family needs no use of innovative display units was observed. All conventional regular type of display units were there. Gift village tried to provide with some innovative display units. Gift village tried to provide with some innovative display units. In Swapno Few of the display were new. Other than those conventional display units were mostly used. In Meena bazaar Most of the display units are conventional.

Few of the display were new. In Agora certain level of standard was maintained in creating innovative display unit. Overall good approach was observed. In Big bazaar no use of innovative display units was observed. All conventional regular type of display units were there. 6. 1. 4. Directional, Departmental, and Category Signage In Family needs huge lacking in Directional, Departmental, and Category Signage was observed. In Swapno Category Signage has been done from ceiling in some places. But it should be done in more organized ; recognizable way.

In Agora Category Signage has been done from ceiling in some places. But it should be done in more organized ; recognizable way. Huge lacking in Directional, Departmental, and Category Signage was observed in Big Bazar. 6. 1. 5. Ceiling treatment and Lighting In Family needs very old ; conventional type of ceiling treatment was observed. This type of ceiling treatment is not appropriate with any supermarket environment. In gift village Ceiling treatment and Lighting Use of black paint ; fabric to hide unwanted ducts ; multicolored patterns were used for creating height variation.

In Swapno Exposed ceiling no use of false ceiling ; all ducts are exposed Innovative approach was there. In Meena bazaar Category Signage has been done from ceiling. Advertising wall papers has been used in some spaces of the wall. In Meena bazaar Innovative approach adopted in Good lighting system. Exposed ceiling no use of false ceiling ; all ducts are exposed. In Agora Ceiling treatment and Lighting Certain level of standard have been maintained. In Big bazaar No use of innovative Ceiling treatment and Lighting units were observed. All conventional regular type of Ceiling treatment and Lighting units were there.

6. 1. 6. Meat and fish processing and display unit and Ready food display In Family needs huge lacking in meat and fish processing and display unit and ready food display was observed. In Gift village huge lacking in meat and fish processing and display unit and ready food display was observed. Swapno tried to practice separate meat and fish processing and display unit . They maintain different processing room. It would be better if they could provide this processing visible to the customers. Meena bazaar tried to practice separate meat and fish processing and display unit .

They maintain different processing room. It would be better if they could provide this processing visible to the customers. Meat and fish processing and display unit And Ready food display certain standard level is maintained in meat and fish processing and display unit of Agora. The processing system is clearly visible to the customers and good display also. In Big bazar huge lacking in meat and fish processing and display unit and ready food display was observed. 6. 1. 7. Storage System In Family needs lack of proper storage facility was observed .

For this reason products seen stocked here ; there creating disturbance in circulation. Efforts were observed regarding proper storage system in Gift village . But in some points it could be better maintained. Swapno tried to practice proper storage system. But in some spaces they failed that caused disturbance in circulation. In Meena bazaar the section for utilities stocked in a manner to optimism the brand exposure shelves are made s. s and packing board. In Agora certain level of standard has been maintained in storage system. Overall good approach observed. Lack of proper storage facility was observed .

For this reason products seen stocked here ; there creating disturbance in circulation. 6. 2. DISCUSSION Supermarkets are set to boom in Bangladesh as the current market players are planning to open several hundred more outlets in the next few years to cope with the rising demand from the consumers. Many of our Dhaka city customers are now seek for an easy-care lifestyle based on simple, functional and aesthetics and quality design products. The idea of supermarkets flourished in the country last decade, fueled by growing urbanization, increasing number of women working outside their home, and rising per capita income.

Although there are many factors which relate to customer satisfaction, but this study field tended to emphasize on layout of the supermarket ,Interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement to highlight each product equally by following the proper standard. According to literature and physical survey it’s found that the supermarket of Dhaka city lacks in furniture layout planning, designing the display units, standard circulation, and zoning. At the same time products are not segmented as per requirement, lack of proper storage system, products are not properly focused.

All these reasons ends with scattered product, loss of valuable time, move directionless at the rush moment, annoyance of the customer. All the products displayed in the Shopping Space are consumer products and will be sold to the customers ; used by them. To stay honest to the customers it’s a requirement to include, Maximum exposure of each product equally for customer clarity. Highlight every single product from every ways so to expose all their merits and demerits are cleared to the customers. The flexibility of assemblage, proper storage of the products and prepare quick replacement for empty shelves.

Provide ease and effective circulation, proper zoning. Standard guideline for the customers by adding signage at each point. As they don’t get lost while in rush and to save time. Space is one of the scarcest resources in Dhaka City. So allocation of space to different functional areas and utilization of every inch of it is most important factor. To design a standalone destination Shopping Space that is a fusion of shapes and colors. The challenge is to avoid monotony, while keeping pace with the demands of modern day philosophy. Giving a modern and modified look to the shopping space.

Contemporary, functionally and aesthetically solved Interior of a Supermarket. CHAPTER SEVEN Possible solutions 7. The host project identification According to literature survey on 6 foreign standard supermarket and physical survey on 6 supermarkets of Dhaka city ( 3 from the South zone and 3 from the North zone) it’s found that the supermarkets of Dhaka city lacks in furniture layout planning, designing the display units, standard circulation, and zoning. The selected sample supermarkets were six in numbers namely, Agora, Meena Bazar, Swapno, Big bazar, Gift village and Family needs.

In the process of fitting in the mission and vision of the thesis topic Trust Family needs (From Zone One of Dhaka North city Corporation) is the best match to achieve the objectives. 7. 1. Factual information about the current condition of the building 7. 1. 1. Location Map of Trust Family Needs 7. 1. 2. Floor Layout Plan of Trust Family Needs (Ground Floor) 7. 2. The need of the host sector for development is as followings: Interior space distribution and utilization, circulation, display unit arrangement to highlight each product equally. Well defined furniture layout plan with total segmentation of dry zone and wet zone.

A clear and free flowing circulation segmented zoning into fresh section, followed by the dry area which encompasses non-food, beauty and preserved items. With Three checkout points with different entry and exit point. Specific trolley taking and leaving area will also provide. With Ergonomically designed shelves, counters and circulation, enough storage space, visually isolated fish and meat preparation area. Proper utilization of visual signs and advertisements, Standard lighting solutions, Standard ceiling treatment will also be under consideration while designing. 7. 3. Concept developing

The design concept of Display unit-Type one was derived from Honeycomb, A structure of hexagonal, thin-walled cells constructed from beeswax by honeybees to hold honey and larvae. A structure supporting, containing and storing a lot of things together at a time. The design concept of this Display unit- type two was derived from foldable room partition. This type of display system gives maximum flexibility in inside the store, this easily movable totally knock down able display system gives the option to move whenever necessary. The design idea of the gondola was a combination of ba

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *