Mastering A&P ch.26

The urinary system does all of the following except
a. regulating plasma concentrations of electrolytes.
b. excreting excess albumin molecules.
c. eliminating organic waste products.
d. regulating blood volume.
e. contributing to stabilizing blood pH.
excreting excess albumin molecules
Functions of the urinary system include
a. conservation of valuable nutrients.
b. regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions.
c. regulation of blood volume and blood pressure.
d. helping to stabilize blood pH.
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
A glomerulus is
a. the expanded end of a nephron.
b. attached to the collecting duct.
c. the source of erythropoietin.
d. a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
e. the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron.
a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle
How is the kidney involved with normal bone ossification and development?
a. Growth hormone is produced by the kidneys.
b. The kidney produces calcitriol.
c. Growth factors from the kidney direct the growth the epiphyseal cartilage plate in the bone.
d. Osteoblasts migrate from the kidney into the bone.
e. Injury to bone triggers a response in the kidney, which makes more rennin hormone.
the kidney produces calcitriol
Urine is eliminated through the
urethra
The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by
a. releasing renin.
b. regulating NaCl levels in the blood.
c. adjusting the volume of water lost in urine.
d. releasing erythropoietin.
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
the ureters
Urine is carried from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the
urethra
Which of the following activities is not related to kidney function?
a. regulation of blood pressure
b. maintenance of various blood ion concentrations
c. control of wastes in the blood
d. lipid digestion
e. control of hydrogen ion and pH in the blood
lipid digestion
The kidney does all of the following EXCEPT __________.
a. regulate plasma electrolytes
b. regulate blood volume
c. help stabilize blood pH
d. secrete excess albumin
secrete excess albumin
In which part of the nephron does filtration occur?
a. proximal convoluted tubule
b. renal corpuscle
c. distal convoluted tubule
d. ascending limb of the loop of Henle
renal corpuscle
What is the name of the most porous layer of the filtration membrane?
a. fenestrated endothelium
b. visceral epithelium
c. filtration slits
d. capsular epithelium
fenestrated endothelium
The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the
hilum
The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
renal pelvis
Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
pyramids
Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
a. vasa recta.
b. interlobular arteriole.
c. afferent arteriole.
d. efferent arteriole.
e. renal vein.
efferent arteriole
The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
papillary duct
Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions.
1200
In the renal corpuscle, the glomerular epithelium is a layer of specialized cells called
podocytes
Capillaries that surround the proximal convoluted tubules are
a. efferent arterioles.
b. corticoradiate capillaries.
c. vasa recta capillaries.
d. proximal capillaries.
e. peritubular capillaries.
peritubular capillaries
The renal veins drain into the
inferior vena cava
Renal columns are
a. internal cavities lined by the fibrous capsule.
b. bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex.
c. conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.
d. expanded ends of the ureters.
e. the basic functional units of the kidney.
bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex
The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
renal pelvis
The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the
juxtaglomerular complex
The filtration of plasma takes place in the
renal corpuscular
Filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
proximal convoluted tubule
The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
distal convoluted tubule
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
a. adjusting the urine pH.
b. secretion of drugs.
c. absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water.
d. secretion of acids and ammonia.
e. filtration.
absorption of ions, organic molecule, vitamins, and water
The process of filtration occurs at the
glomerular (bowman’s) capsule
The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of which three layers?
a. podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus
b. fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes
c. filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores
d. dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule
e. endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits
endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits
The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
capillaries
The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
cortex
Which of the following components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
collecting ducts
The medial indentation on the exterior of the kidney where the ureter exits is called the __________.
hilum
Blood is supplied to a nephron by its __________.
afferent arterioles
The urinary filtrate first enters __________.
the glomerular (Bowman) capsule
Where does the ureter penetrate the kidney?
hilum
Which region of the kidney is the most superficial?
renal cortex
Where does filtration of the blood occur within the kidneys?
renal cortex
Where are the renal columns located?
renal medulla
Where does the kidney filter the blood?
renal capsule
What is the function of the renal pelvis?
a. Collects newly formed urine
b. Filters waste products out of the blood
c. Changes the composition of urine
d. Receives the glomerular filtrate
collects newly formed urine
Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine?
a. urea
b. hydrogen ions
c. amino acids
d. creatinine
e. large proteins
large proteins
Substances larger than ________ are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane.
albumin
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following except
a. reduce blood flow to kidneys.
b. increase the glomerular filtration rate.
c. trigger renin release.
d. produce renal ischemia.
e. produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.
increase the glomerular filtration rate
If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?
a. damage to the glomeruli
b. permanent kidney injury
c. presence of blood in urine
d. presence of protein in urine
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the glomerulus is generated by
a. filtrate in the capsular space.
b. presence of albumin proteins in blood plasma.
c. blood pressure.
d. constriction of the efferent arteriole.
e. protein in the filtrate.
presence of albumin proteins in blood plasma
One of the organic substances not normally excreted by the kidney is __________.
protein
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
a. nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea
b. water and small solutes
c. ions, such as sodium and potassium
d. blood cells and large particles
blood cells and large particles
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
a. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
b. colloid osmotic pressure of blood
c. gravity
hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?
protein
What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?
renin
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
afferent arterioles
Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initiated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?
renin-angiotensin system
What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
autoregulation
Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?
a. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
b. autonomic regulation
c. vasoconstriction
d. glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
Which of the choices below best describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
a. the volume of urine that leaves the kidneys per minute
b. the blood pressure within the glomerulus
c. the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
d. the volume of blood flowing through the glomerular capillaries per minute
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following except
a. facilitated diffusion.
b. cotransport.
c. active transport.
d. countertransport.
e. stem cell movements.
stem cell movements
The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves
a. an increase in facultative water reabsorption.
b. the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the neurohypophysis.
c. aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells.
d. a high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts.
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
a. hematuric oliguria.
b. absence of ADH.
c. overproduction of aldosterone.
d. excessive ADH secretion.
e. dilation of the afferent arterioles.
absence of ADH
A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to
a. reduction of blood pressure.
b. less secretion of aldosterone.
c. decreased sodium reabsorption.
d. increased urinary loss of sodium.
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
Which of the following substances are not normally found in the filtrate?
protein
Filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule normally contains
a. nutrients.
b. hydrogen ions.
c. water.
d. urea.
e. All of the answers are correct.
all
When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
a. the osmolarity of the urine decreases.
b. permeability to water in the collecting system increases.
c. water reabsorption increases in the loop of Henle.
d. a concentrated urine is produced.
e. less urine is produced.
the osmolarity of the urine decreases
Agents that increase urine excretion are known as
diuretics
The process of ________ involves a carrier protein that can transport a molecule across the cell membrane down its concentration gradient.
facilitated diffusion
A transport mechanism that can move a substance against a concentration gradient by using cellular energy is
active transport
Which of the following activities occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. secretion of hydrogen ions
b. reabsorption of 99 percent of organic nutrients
c. reabsorption of water
d. All of the listed activities occur at the proximal convoluted tubule.
all
Which of these hormones causes the kidney to increase the body’s content of sodium?
aldosterone
Which of these is NOT a property of countercurrent multiplication?
a. It exploits the structure of the nephron loop.
b. It creates a hyperosmotic peritubular fluid in the kidney medulla.
c. It depends on active ion transport to function.
d. It is opposed by the vasa recta.
it is opposed by the vasa recta
Which of the following statements about ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is correct?
a. ADH is synthesized by the adrenal gland and works in the kidney.
b. ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland.
c. ADH inserts water channels into the luminal membrane of the proximal tubules.
d. ADH would increase urine volume.
ADH is released by the posterior pituitary gland
Which of the following statements about filtrate is INCORRECT?
Select the best answer.
a. The filtrate is produced within the proximal convoluted tubule.
b. The filtrate is collected within the renal cortex.
c. The filtrate is similar to blood plasma.
d. The filtrate has the same osmotic pressure as blood plasma.
the filtrate is produced within the proximal convoluted tubule
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
transitional
The detrusor muscle
a. moves urine along the ureters by peristalsis.
b. functions as the external urinary sphincter.
c. surrounds the renal pelvis.
d. functions as the internal urinary sphincter.
e. compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.
compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra
The inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is
renal failure
Which of these statements about the detrusor muscle is FALSE?
a. It moves urine through the urethra by peristalsis.
b. It contracts the wall of the urinary bladder.
c. It is composed of smooth muscle.
d. It is innervated by parasympathetic nerves.
it moves urine through the urethra by peristalsis
Which of these is NOT an aspect of the micturition reflex arc?
a. It involves sympathetic nervous system function.
b. The effector is the detrusor muscle.
c. CNS processing occurs in the sacral cord.
d. It is stimulated by mechanoreceptors.
it involved sympathetic nervous system function
What type of epithelium is found lining the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the proximal portion of the urethra?
transitional
Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following except
a. a reduction in the GFR (glomerular filtration rate).
b. loss of sphincter muscle tone.
c. problems with the micturition reflex.
d. increased sensitivity to ADH.
e. a decline in the number of functional nephrons.
increased sensitivity of ADH
Your doctor has diagnosed you with prostatitis, an inflammation and swelling involving the prostate gland. One of your primary symptoms is
dribbling urination
Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree except the ________ system.
endocrine
Which of these is NOT considered to be part of the excretory system?
a. urinary system
b. integumentary system
c. cardiovascular system
d. respiratory system
cardiovascular system

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