Literary Psychoanalytic And Feminist Criticism English Literature Essay
Psychoanalytical unfavorable judgment is extremely regarded by literary critics even after a century of literary readings achieved by agencies of methods belonging to this critical position. This type of literary unfavorable judgment has influenced many other critical attacks including the women’s rightist 1. Since the early 1970 ‘s, feminist analysts have employed “ tools ” belonging to psychoanalytic unfavorable judgment in order to analyze the portraiture of adult females in literary creative activities. However, women’s rightists ne’er apply psychoanalytic theory in the traditional mode. Alternatively, they prefer to accommodate these constructs and methods to their ain intent. Feminist literary critics disapprove of ( what they call ) Freudian chauvinistic positions on adult female ‘s mind ( which they choose to “ analyze ” in their ain footings, in their ain mode ) . Therefore, feminist analysts agree to the typical psychoanalytic form of literary reading merely to a certain extent ( by disputing it and adding new possibilities and new positions to it ) .
The intent of this paper is to discourse literary analyses that are based on a combination of psychoanalytic and feminist unfavorable judgment. I have chosen analyses of Charlotte Bronte ‘s Jane Eyre and Shirley and Emily Bronte ‘s Wuthering Highs because they allow for ( and even render as necessary ) this type of combination. These three literary plants were written by authoresses who lived in a society marked by disagreement ( a “ split ” ) between visual aspects and world. Victorian society is best described by the Freudian footings of “ repression ” ( of the instinctual side of the personality ) and “ pathological symptoms ” to which sublimation normally leads. This societal background is reflected in the novels mentioned, which is why I consider them the perfect pick for the literary application of psychoanalytic theory.
Furthermore, the feminist analyst Elaine Showalter includes these Hagiographas in the “ feminine stage ” in the development of the female literary tradition, which turns them into the ideal literary texts to be analysed from a feminist position. During this phase ( dating from 1840 to 1880 ) , adult females used male anonym and wrote in an attempt to be the rational accomplishments of the male civilization, which affected the tone, enunciation, construction and word picture of their literary creative activities.[ 1 ]The chief features of this stage are absolutely illustrated by the plants and lives of the Brontes as I showed in the subchapter entitled “ The Social Status of Charlotte and Emily Bronte as Victorian Women Writers ” ( in the chapter “ Charlotte and Emily Bronte in Social Context and Feminine Tradition ” ) . The Brontes felt compelled to utilize male anonym in order to profit from a “ just ” ( undiscriminating ) reading of their texts. When they did uncover their true individualities, Charlotte and Emily Bronte ‘s literary creative activities ( every bit good as their unity as authors ) were ferociously attacked by male critics and authors.
Because of the challenges that female authors of this phase dealt with, the freshness they brought to the literary field and the immense measure they took in order to interrupt with the tradition that had silenced adult females and prevented them from composing, I believe that this is the most of import stage of the three identified by Showalter. In add-on, the apprehension of the kernel of this phase is necessary for the comprehension of the full female literary tradition, since it represents the really “ roots ” ( beginnings ) of adult females ‘s civilization. As a consequence, Wuthering Heights, Jane Eyre and Shirley are non merely the perfect types of texts to be analysed from a psychoanalytic position, but besides a great pick in footings of literary stuff that allows for feminist attacks.
I have chosen these two critical literary positions due to my personal involvement in depth psychology and feminist issues. I believe that I have a set for psychological science and the societal fortunes in which I grew up led to my taking to feminist beliefs. Therefore, this subject offers me the chance to research “ spheres ” which I find appealing, leting me, at the same clip, to unite passion with rational research – a mixture which is known to supply the best consequences possible.
My diploma paper is structured on five chapters which I shall briefly present. The first two chapters ( entitled “ Introductory Considerations on Feminist Literary Criticism ” and “ Introductory Considerations on Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism ” ) are ( as the rubrics themselves suggest ) introductory chapters which present the theory applied to the chosen literary creative activities throughout my paper. Both chapters include a general presentation of feminist/ psychoanalytic unfavorable judgment based on Linda H. Peterson ‘s Wuthering Heights casebook. The 1 on feminist attacks besides includes an analysis of some of the most of import critical essays of 10 extremely regarded women’s rightist analysts, every bit good as remarks on their work and influence on literary unfavorable judgment ( provided by Hazard Adams in his Literary Theory Since Plato and Literary Theory Since 1965 ) . Similarly, the chapter on psychoanalytic position consists of a presentation of the theory of Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and Carl Gustav Jung ( based on Hazard Adams ‘ two books and Richard Harland ‘s Literary Theory from Plato to Barthes: An Introductory History ) . Furthermore, I besides achieved a ( quite personal ) treatment of the essays I considered relevant to the subject of my paper.
The 3rd chapter ( entitled “ Charlotte and Emily Bronte in Social Context and Feminine Tradition ” ) consists of three subchapters: “ Victorian Social Background ” , “ The Social Status of Charlotte and Emily Bronte as Victorian Women Writers ” , and “ Jane Eyre, Shirley and Wuthering Heights – within and Set apart from Feminine Tradition ” . The 2nd subchapter focal points on Bronte sisters ‘ societal position which reflected the attitude that Victorian society had towards adult females authors and even adult females in general. The 3rd subchapter is meant show the extent to which Emily and Charlotte Bronte were inspired by their ascendants and, accordingly, preserved of import elements belonging to the tradition that was “ born ” in the eighteenth century. This full chapter is chiefly about puting the Brontes within a societal context and their work within the development of female literary tradition in order to put the premises necessary for the feminist attack to the three novels.
The 4th chapter ( Wuthering Heights ) consists of literary applications of psychoanalytic theory to Wuthering Heights, a presentation of assorted feminist positions on the novel and a subchapter dedicated to attacks that combine both types of critical positions. The last chapter ( “ Jane Eyre and Shirley ” ) has a similar construction to the 3rd one, the lone noteworthy difference being the last subchapter in which I relate psychological discourse in the Victorian epoch to Charlotte Bronte ‘s fiction by utilizing Sally Shuttleworth ‘s Charlotte Bronte and Victorian Psychology.
Although this paper may look a spot drawn-out, the complex subject requires more research than other ( typical ) diploma paper subjects. Having chosen non one, but two literary critical positions and three novels to analyze, I have had to duplicate the necessary ( rational ) attempt and infinite dedicated to the theoretical and practical parts of the paper. However, it is this pick that has turned the authorship of my diploma paper into both a challenge and an gratifying experience ( since the critical attacks that I have employed in my survey are [ as already mentioned ] connected with “ spheres ” I am really passionate about ) . Despite the length of the paper, I have non been able to accomplish everything that I set out to ( or that the rubric suggests ) . On history of infinite bound, I have had to concentrate on two of the mentioned novels and on one of the two positions I have chosen. Therefore, the analysis of Shirley is merely meant to underscore and supply a term of comparing for certain facets in the analysis of Jane Eyre and the accent is on feminist position and its connexion with psychoanalytic position.